CHAPTER 4- SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY (4.3 INFORMATION PROCESSING ( Input- This is…
CHAPTER 4- SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY
4.1 SKILL AND ABILITY
- A learned action or behavior, with the intention of bringing about pre-determined results, with maximum outlay of time and energy.
Classifications of skill
A simple skill that does not require much concentration--->
: A skill that requires a great deal of concentration and coordination to perform.
E.g throwing catching a ball --->Pole Vault
: A skill that is performed in a certain way to deal with a changing or unstable environment--->
a skill that is not affected by the environment or performers with in it. Done the same way each time.
Rugby player, dodging tackling--->Diver performance.
Self paced skill:
a skill is started when the performer decides to start it. The speed rate or pace of the skill is controlled by the performer--->
Externally paced skill
: A skill that is started because of the external factor.The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled such as environment.
Table Tennis--->badminton react to the serve.
Gross movement skill:
A skill that uses large muscle groups to perform big, strong powerful movements.--->
Fine movement skill:
involving small movements, showing high levels of accuracy and coordination. small muscle groups.
triple jump --->a spin bowler
an inherited, stable trait that determines and individuals potential to learn or acquire a skill.
distinguishing qualities belonging to a person
4.2 GOALS AND TARGETS
Types of Goals:
These are personal goals that an individual wants to achieve. A performer sets a goal based on what they have already achieved or what they want to achieve in the future.
These are focused on the end result on winning or coming in second or third. Winning a squash tournament or placing second in a 400 metres freestyle swimming race are examples of outcome goals.
The target must be specific to the demands of the sport, muscles used or movements used.
It must be possible to measure whether the specific target set has been met.
The target must be accepted by the performer and others involved in training and competition, such as the performers coach.
- The target must actually be possible to complete and attain.
The target covers a set period of time so that the performer knows whether or not they have achieved it.
Examples of smart Targets: 100 metre sprinter-take 0.2 secs off pb by last race/ football striker- Score 12 goals this season
4.3 INFORMATION PROCESSING
This is the data received from the display. In the case of a performer, the information will be received via their senses, either by their sense of sight, sound or touch or their intuition.
- The selected data is analysed and an appropriate response is selected. In the case of a performer, this means they will access memories of similar experiences and will chose the appropriate response accordingly.
The decision is acted on. Information is sent from the performers brain to the working muscles to carry out the required response.
Data is received in response to the output.
- Is received from the performer themselves,from their thoughts or emotions.
- received by receptors in the muscles. physical sensations generated by movements felt
. Extrinsic feedback
- received from outside of the performer, can come from coach, spectators.
4.4 GUIDANCE AND FEEDBACK ON PERFORMANCE
-the information a performer receives about their performance. Feedback can be given during and/or after a performance.
is about what was correct or good about the performance.
Motivates a performer particularly for beginners, makes all performers feel that they had successful aspects to their performance.
Can emphasise positive aspects too highly and suggest that overall performance was was better than it actually was.
is about what was incorrect or bad about the performance.
It enables a coach to provide guidance on how a skill should be performed correctly or better, it can help performers to prioritise the specific skills they need to improve.
- It can very demoralizing particularly for beginners, too many negative comments can leave the performer struggling to know how to respond. This is particularly the case for beginners.
Knowledge of results
provides the performer with information about their placing in a tournament or the time it took them to complete a race.
It gives the performer a quick measure of their success.
: Can be demotivating for other performers in situations where there can only be one winner.
Knowledge of performance
provides the performer with information about their performance generally and about their technique more specifically.
There are many aspects to one performance so the feedback can be very detailed for experienced performers for beginners.
It can be challenging to break a performance down in order to provide the detailed feedback required be experienced performers.
received about their performance from outside themselves , such as from a coach
- Beginners need extrinsic feedback from coaches to be made aware of and learn, basic skills and techniques. More experienced performers can combine extrinsic and intrinsic feedback to gain a full picture of their performance
It can difficult to get the advice and help of a qualified coach, especially for beginners.
received about the performance from within. Kinaesthetic feedback is a form of intrinsic feedback
Performers, particularly experienced performers, can make immediate adjustments
It requires a high level of knowledge about a particular activity to be able to identify precisely what did not work well and what needs to be done to improve it. Beginners are unlikely to have this level of knowledge.
- a method of conveying information to a performer. Guidance can be visual, verbal, manual or mechanical.
is presented in a form that the performer can see. It can include anything from a live demonstration to a video or a film, a poster, a chart or court markings.
is when a coach describes how to perform a skill and the performer hears the skill
involves a coach physically moving performer into correct position.
takes place when objects or aids are used to assist coaching process, floats, harnesses
a physical and mental (physiological and psychological) state of alertness/readiness, varying from deep sleep to intense excitement or alertness.
Linking skills to optimal levels of arousal
- The optimal level of arousal varies according to the skill being performed
Gross movement skills
generally require higher levels of arousal. The mind and body need very alert to ensure that the strength, endurance and speed required to perform gross skills is available. E.g rugby player making tackle needs to fully commit.
Fine movement skills
generally require lower levels of arousal. The mind and body need to be calm to ensure that the coordination and concentration required perform the small, precise movements are present. E.g Golfer needs to be calm and controlled.
The 'inverted-U' theory states that an optimal performance occurs when a performer reaches optimal level of arousal. You are more likely to perform at your best when you are in the best possible physical and mental state
The Graph shows the performance level from low to high. When performed is under aroused the performance is poorer. Simerly if you are over aroused.
Managing arousal using stress management techniques
When people are very aroused, their breathing can become rapid and sometimes erratic. Deep breathing, taking slow deep breaths, help calm breathing and return it to its regular rhythm. Slower, deeper breathing increases the supply of oxygen the brain, helping to mit arousal caused by anxiety and stress
Mental rehearsal, visualization and imagery: cognitive relaxation techniques involving control of mental thoughts and imagining positive outcomes.
Positive self talk:
cognitive relaxation technique involving developing positive thoughts about your performance.
often defined as a deliberate intent to harm or injure another person, but in sport it can be more controlled. It can be physical or mental.
Types of aggression:
an aggressive act that involves physical contact with others
an aggressive act that does not involve direct physical contact. It is taken out on an object in order to gain an advantage.
Luis Suarez exhibited aggression when he bit Italy defender Giorgio Chiellini during the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The aggression was outside the rules of the game and Suarez was suspended from all football-related activity for four months as a punishment
4.7 PERSONALITY TYPES
a quiet, shy, passive and reserved personality type, usually associated with individual performance.
Long-distance runners are often introverts because introverts are more likely to enjoy training on their own
a sociable, active, talkative and outgoing personality type, usually associated with team sports.
Extroverts often choose to play sociable team sports, such as rugby or football
: the drive to succeed, or the desire to achieve or be inspired to do something. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic.
: the drive to succeed that comes from within.
the drive to perform well or to win in order to gain external rewards.
A trophy or a prize provides extrinsic motivation but intrinsic motivation, in the form of personal pride and pleasure in competing, is better in the long term