Preventing and treating disease (Monoclonal antibodies (uses (Treating…
Preventing and treating disease
A pathogen is likely to have many different antigens on its cell surface. Each antigen will cause a different type of white blood cell to clone itself and produce antibodies. This makes the response much faster, meaning you can fight off the pathogen quicker.
how they're made
A mouse is injected with a pathogen and the immune system responds
2.Specific white blood cells called B Lymphocytes produce antibodies
3.B cells are combined with tumor cells.
4.These cells are called hybrodomia cells and they can make specific antibodies. They are screened to make sure they produce the right ones
5.The hybrodomia cells clone and make monoclonal antibodies
These are harvested and used for a range of purposes.
Antibiotics and painkillers
Antibiotics and painkillers are different. Antibiotics kill bacteria or the cause of the illness whereas painkillers reduce pain.
Painkillers, on the other hand, only reduce pain. Ibuprofen, paracetemol, codeine, morphine and asparin are all examples of painkillers.
Antibiotics have hugely reduced deaths from infectious diseases caused by bacteria. They damage the bacterial cell wall causing the bacteria to disintegrate. Howeve there is a problem. Bacteria is evolving to become resistant to antibiotics and eventually antibiotics may not work at all. Also they can't treat viruses as they don't have a cell wall.
Vaccinations and herd immunity
Herd Immunity. This is where if a large population is immune to a disease, those who are not immune are still protected. Vaccination programs do not require 100% update to protect the entire population. Some people can't be vaccinated due to weakened immune systems from chemotherapy, genetic conditions and diseases like AIDS. This is where herd immunity comes in, protecting those who can't be vaccinated.
The person who found out about vaccinations was Edward Jenner. He noticed that dairymaids with cowpox did not catch smallpox and thought that the mild disease protected them against the more serious one. He put pus from cowpox on a scratch on a boys arm, then from smallpox once the boy recovered. The boy didn't become ill because he already had cowpox and the correct antibodies could be made quickly.
If a pathogen enters the body, the immune system tries to destroy it. Vaccinations introduce small amounts of dead or inactive pathogens to get the white blood cells to respond quickly and produce the correct pathogens. : :