IH TB6 The Rise of Modern China (1949 to 1976) (Initial Policies carried…
IH TB6 The Rise of Modern China (1949 to 1976)
Rise of Modern China
China was weak and unstable during late 19th century to early 20th century.
Foreign invasion (Second-Sino Japanese War 1937-1945)
China was politically unstable
Chinese civil war resume between Nationalists & Communists (1946-1949)
Retreat to Taiwan
Declare establishment of People's Republic of China (October 1 1949)
Factors leading to triumph of Communists & defeat of nationalists
Factor 2: Nationalists did not receive supports from majority of China population.
Influenced restricted in cities
Lost support of US
Unpopular in most or the country
Factor 3: Nationalist gov. was corrupted and unpopular with the poor.
Gov. officials were only concerned with their own wealth.
Most of the money & resources were taken away
Factor 1: Peasants in countrysides and lower class supported communists, communists control country side.
Communists had more control of China
Communists used villages & rural area to blockade cities & surround cities
Factor 4: Many soldiers from nationalists defected to communist in the civil war.
KMT soldiers switch sides, taught communists to use weapon.
KMT nearly won in 1936
However, when they surrounded communists, Japanese arrived...
KMT was supported by US in civic war, had more & better equipment then.
After WW2, strength of Nationalists reduced.
Leader: Mao Ze Dong
Supported by peasants / farmers / lower class
Area controlled: Country side
Strength: Supported by country side & most of China's population.
Weakness: Less financial power & support also Poor equipment
Leader: Chiang Kai Shek
Area controlled: Major cities / urban areas
Weakness: Corruption / Low morale in military / Very few support, only control cities
Strength: Financial supports from US / Better equipment and soldiers
Supported by businessman / factory owners / middle class
Initial Policies carried out by People's republic of China
Land confiscated from landlords
Land redistributed to peasants
Landlord confiscated of land and arrested for trial as mistreated the peasants.
Collectives *Large piece of land combined by small farms
Land owned by different peasants combine to form large collective
Peasants work together in same piece of land.
Peasants work in collective farms to raise food production
Land jointly owned by peasants, controlled by communists.
Peasants with more land & wealth don't want to give up land.
New marriage law
Women encouraged to work in factories & villages
Sent people to village to teach peasants & villagers how to read & write
Taught communism to villagers
Free health care
90% China population was literate by mid 1960s
Offer women more rights, have more freedom & rights in marriage
Free access to health care
Factory managers can keep companies, but need to follow production targets set by communists.
Factories & industries under communists control.
5 Year Plan
Free to choose work & study, more rights
Less promotion or social mobility
Landlord arrested & killed
Landlords given show trial
Healthcare & education in rural areas
Land lord killed
No more oppression
Rich peasants had land taken
Did not suffer much presecution
Need to produce for country
Strict control from party
Follow production quotas
State: Owner Enterprise
The Great Leap forward (1958-1962)
Each commune controlled by party member, provide gov. crops.
Result: False reports or agriculture revolution.
Peasants grouped together to work in collectives, shared dormitories & eat together in communes.
Result: During poor harvest, commune give crops to gov.
Mao order peasants to kill sparrows & pests
Collectives had to provide crops to gov.
Peasants farm in collectives.
Crops eaten by pests (locusts)
Peasants had low incentives to work.
Gov. order farmer to make steel using backyard furnace.
China wanted to surpass UK & US in 15 years
Result: Steel produced in bad quality, although produce a lot.
Why Mao increase China's industrial output after 5 - year plan?
Mao believed projects in 5 year plan is not enough, therefore want citizens to get involve in boosting industrial project.
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
Extreme supporter of Mao.
Destroyed 4 olds: Customs, traditional, culture, ideas.
Worry Chinese culture and traditional ruling were ruining China.
Believed that China could advance by destroying tradition.
Have China follow the correct path of communists country.