GCSE Geography course: Coastal landforms (Coastal Landforms (Soft rock:…
GCSE Geography course: Coastal landforms
The distance to the closest piece of land.
Long Shore Drift:
The process where material is moved along the beach when the prevailing wind hits the beach at an angle.
Strong backwash, waves close together with a steep front and a breaking wave that plunges downward.
Strong swash that adds to the beach, waves up to 1 meter high depositing material allowing transportation.
waves trap air in cracks that widen them, weakening.
rocks forced together smoothing; smaller and rounder.
rocks dissolve in salt: chalk + limestone
water gets trapped in rocks, freezing expanding and thawing breaking the rocks.
salt spray gets into the rock: - Some evaporates - Some will crystallise, breaking down the rock.
When rainwater hits rocks it reacts. also includes Carbonation and Hydrolysis.
heavy rainfall moves large amounts of soil or mud downslope, the scale is determined by the extent of weathering.
large areas of rock move down a slope on clay cliffs.
Same type of rock along length. Rarely forms bays and headlands
The geology alternates between strata of Hard and soft rock.
The headland is worn away from a
Crack to a Cave, Arch, Stack, Stump
Sand dunes: Offshore bar, Beach berm, Incipient dune, fore dune, Hind dune
beaches and sand dunes.
when the swash is stronger than the backwash
a landform created of sand when the coastline changes direction aided by the process of LSD
CS: Lyme Regis Coastal Protection Scheme
It is built on some of the most unstable ground in the U.K. so a costal protection scheme was devised in 1990s to protect the town.
Phase 1: A new sea wall and promenade east of the river Lim. It was finished in 1995.
Phase 2: this will protect the foreshore and stabilise the land behind it. Work started in 2005 and costs £17m.
Phase 3: Never happened due to high cost.
Phase 4: Stabilised the homes, roads and infrastructure in 2015 at a cost of £19.5 million.
Coastal management types
Sea wall: sends the wave back to sea.
Rock armour: reduce wave engergy
Gabions: absorb wave power to stop the waves from hitting the cliff
Groynes protect against the process of LSD
Bach nourishment: extra sand is added to absorb wave energy
Dune regeneration: A natural barrier against the waves stabilization is cheap.
Managed retreat: natural processes are let allowed to happen as the land is cheap
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