research methods and theories 10 markers (documents (disadvantages: may…
research methods and theories 10 markers
: more natural and valid. Get real responses rather than individual's behaving in a certain way due to KNOWING that they are being observed.
: may be unethical because they are carried out without the participant's knowledge. Reduced control.
: cannot tailor the questions to the individual. No way of obtaining information about another topic.
: easy to quantify, standardised questions means that the findings are reliable and also valid.
: Screw you effect, language barriers, Postal questionnaire: may not get it back.
: quick, cheap and easy. Requires no special training.
outline and explain two ways in which values may play a part in sociology (10 marks)
outline and explain two ways in which values may not play a part in sociology (10 marks)
: there is always a control group and an experimental group, the distinction between the two allows us to see the cause of different behaviour.
The Hawthorne effect- participant's behaviour may change since they know they are being watched.
: closed system. All variables are controlled, easier to compare.
Original researcher can specify the steps done in the experiment, so it can be redone. Reliability.
Produces quantitative data, so the results can be compared.
Detached and objective.
: Flexibility. The researcher can tailor the questions specifically to the participant. Get more valid data as well as making the participant more comfortable.
Can develop a rapport with one another. Researcher will be viewed as trust-worthy so will get more data.
: requires special training. can take a long time.
It is hard to analyse and categorise this type of data due its form.
: difficult to analyse, some individual's may dominate over others, peer group pressure.
: presence of others will ensure that everyone feels comfortable and can stimulate other's thinking.
non participant observation
: no ethical issues. the participants are aware they are being studied.
:Hawthorneorne effect, demand characteristics. The participant may change their behaviour to suit the researcher.
: real data, no risk of hawthorne effect.
- time consuming, small sample, going native, getting in, staying out, getting out, subjective
: may not be of great value to the sociologist.
Not always possible to gain access to them.
Individuals create documents for their own puporss, may not be helpful for the sociologist.
- cheap, quick, reliable, can be used to double check primary data, may be only source of info from past, indepth insight (personal)
: only the state has access to the resources needed to conduct such a large scale survey, thus there is lots of data provided. Sociologists get this data for free.
Collected at regular intervals, showing key trends and patterns.
: may not be statistics available that the sociologist wants.
the definitions that the state use for certain phrases/occurrences may be different from the ones that the sociologist use.
outline and explain two criticisms of feminist perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
- women are better suited in the home, nuclear family is the best, stable for society, deviating from that is when all goes to shit
- actual inequality is class, due to capitalism not patriarchy, marx and althusser, engels, lenin, gramsci
outline and explain two uses of the feminist perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
radical feminists - patriarchy is the root of evil. greeley, political feminist.
criticise - somerville - sexual attraction
liberal feminists - it's getting better, we'll get there in the end, it's just not the end yet!
sociology and science
Outline and explain two arguments for the view that sociology is a science (10 marks)
realism, observe unobservable concepts - same as physics
sociology can falsify theories - popper - overall hard to falsify sociology itself
Outline and explain two arguments against the view that sociology is a science (10)
outline two features of the relationship between sociology and social policy (10 marks)
sociology can lead to good social policy, Roundtree 1997 - research (poor do badly in school) could explain why we have social policy to help kiddos in school, e.g. formula funding. good sociology can force the gov to pass laws
jamie oliver - sugar tax - obese kids each too much crap - sugar tax - sociology can inform social policy
no sociology behind other social policies, e.g. universal credit. no sociological research that says benefit system needs restructuring!
outline and explain two reasons why sociological research findings may be unable to influence social policy (10 marks)
outline and explain two uses of the marxist perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
althusser - ideological state apparatus - education, media, religion, legitmates suffering of the poor, reproduces hierarchy and class system
marx - religion = opium of the people, creates false consciousness, education does the same, bowles and gintis myth of meritocracy
outline and explain two criticisms of marxism perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
feminists - actually it's patriarchy not capitalism - men are trash
functionalists - everything is sunny and shiny and happy and good
outline and explain two criticisms of functionalist perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
Ignores the wider power structure of society, not everything is meritocratic.
Rose tinted view of society, ignores the negative aspects of the family, such as Domestic Abuse, high divorce rates etc.
outline and explain two reasons why the functionalist perspective in sociology is useful (10 marks)
can help us to understand the importance of society working as a unit. Functions of each institution within society.
How to achieve social order
outline and explain two action theories perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
symbolic interactionism -
Thomas - if people define a situation as real, it will have real consequences
Cooley - we shape our identities on the way other people see us = 'looking glass self'
Mead - value of symbols over instincts. We create a world of meaning by attaching symbols and language to things around us
Goffman - Dramaturgical Model - we actively construct ourselves by manipulating other people's impression of us. Role Distance - the difference between the role you are playing and your character
social action theory - weber - combination of structural theory and action theory. looks at two things:
level of cause (What led a person to action)
level of meaning (what meaning a person attaches to their own actions)
criticism - too individualistic - doesn't explain shared nature of meaning
outline and explain two criticisms of action theories perspectives in sociology (10 marks)
outline and explain two reasons why quantitative is better than qualitative data (10 marks).
Reason 1: easier to formulate data. . Reason 2: Standardised data, reliable
outline and explain two reasons why qualitative data is better than qualitative data (10 marks)
Reason 1: far more detailed and descriptive. Reason 2: easy to understand people's opinions and beliefs from this type of data.