Education essay questions (Evaluate the usefulness of functionalist…
Education essay questions
Outline and explain the effects of two marketisation policies (10 marks)
1988 Education Reform Act. NNLOGO. Increased competition within schools.
2002-2010 Academies and Free schools act.
To what extent has government policy produced a working market system in the UK (30 marks)
Evaluate the usefulness of functionalist perspective for explaining differences in outcome of education (30 marks)
: Functionalists believe that the education system is meritocratic and that the school is a bridge to wider society.
: Parsons. School is a bridge between the family and wider society. We learn to deal with people that we do not get on with. This transfers to the values of the workplace
We learn about life outside of the family at school. We have to prove ourselves. Work=achievement, this transfers to the workplace.
: It does not take into account the wider power structures that influence education. It is not simply due to the values of each individuals school.
: a Marxist perspective on education. Capitalists own the means of production, profits are made by exploiting the labour class.
: Althusser. RSA and ISA. The education system controls the working class through the ideology that it promotes through the hidden curriculum etc. Reproduces and legitimises inequality.
: Correspondance principle operates through the hidden curriculum. Bowles and Gintis. Education system produces obedient and exploitable workforces. Instils the idea that inequality is inevitable.
: New Right would argue strongly against this.
: Postmodernists would argue that the Marxist perspective on education is out of date.
: The correspondence principle is too simplistic.
Class divisions are no longer important
There is far more choice than Marxists believe. Increased diversity and choice.
This means that individuals within the education system have more freedom to do what makes them happy, thus leading to increased educational achievement and a positive role in the future economy/society.
: New Right view on education. Functionalism has influenced their views.
: Firm belief that the state should not be relied on- we should privatise schools and promote the idea of marketisation. Believe that education is meritocratic and that inequality is an inevitable factor of the education system.
: Chubb and Moe. Students from low-income backgrounds do 5% better in private schools. Marketisation of education would ensure quality, schools would have to increase their standards as competition increased.
Assess the reasons for continued male dominance in the work place despite female educational achievement (30 marks)
Patriarchy, radical feminism, division of labour (Parsons), gender socialisation (bedroom culture)
Not enough free child care/ women have to take off time to be pregnant.
Liberal feminism: we will get there in the end.
Acts that seem to be changing gender tings have not actually done much.
Assess two internal factors which can affect gender differences in schools (10 marks)
Lack of male primary school teachers. Boys cannot connect with the education they are being taught, do not see it as a 'boy' thing, thus tend to not do so well.
Coursework. Mitos and Browne. Girls do better than boys in coursework.
Girls mature earlier and can concentrate for longer. Better GCSE results.
Assess two external factors which can affect gender differences in schools (10 marks)
Changes in women's employment. 1975 Sex Discrimination Act. Allowed women to progress further in the career ladder. Female pupils see this, and once again have increased incentive to do better in school.
Influence of feminism. Challenging patriarchy in all areas. Rejected the Functionalist (Parsons) view that the division of labour is biological.
Women have a right to education.
More motivation to do well in schools.
. magazine study thing. Women are more focused on careers etc rather than having children.
Assess two internal factors which can affect ethnic minority groups performance within schools (10 marks)
Labelling. Gillborn and Mirza. Black pupils were very likely to be labelled due to teachers racial preconceptions. Picked on, undermined etc. All led to underachievement.
Institutional racism. Ethnocentric curriculum
Assess two external factors which can affect ethnic minority groups performance within schools (10 marks)
Compensatory education. Sure start. free pre school education for disadvantaged groups. Levelled the playing field.
Intellectual and language skills. Children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation. Some children are unable to express themselves effectively, so cannot achieve well in school.
Explain two ways in which labelling affects working class children within schools (10 marks)
Streaming, Douglas and Lacey.
Self fulfilling prophecy.
Evaluate the reasons for continuing working class underachievement in our education system (30 marks)
Internal: Streaming. Lacey. Educating individuals differently. Differentiation, alienation, polarisation etc.
Douglas found that the IQ of individuals in lower streams fell dramatically in comparison to the individuals in the higher streams.
External :material deprivation. Bourdieu and cultural capital.
External: cultural deprivation. Basil Bernstein.
Internal: labelling. Becker. White middle class pupils are viewed as ideal, whereas ethnic minority groups were not. Black pupils are more likely to be excluded.
Suggest two ways in which external factors can affect working class children's performance within schools (10 marks)
Cultural deprivation. Bernstein and language. Limits the achievement of working class pupils, since the whole education system is based on middle class values.
Material deprivation. Poor diet/housing.