Water Transfer and security (Lesotho: The Highland Water Project (Benefits…
Water Transfer and security
A problem to groundwater is that they can abstracted too much, and causes the supply to run low and the soil and water table becomes unstable, causing landslides and plants not being able to grow efficiently.
They can be tapped into to collect drinking water.
When groundwater (water underground) is collected by rain through the saturated zone and water table through porous rock or cracks in the ground.
Grey-water Recycling in Jordan
It supplies the growing population of Jordan with safe and sustainable water.
Jordan saves €20,000 per year by not needing to import the water by trucks from other areas.
The Water is filtered using ultraviolet light which removes bacteria and germs from the water.
80% of the water taken from hotels go to a water treatment plant.
Grey-water recycling: When water that is taken from drains in sinks, washing appliances and showers and is filtered and sanitised to be used again for cooking or consumption.
Educating the public/Spreading awareness
Rasing tariff prices and water bills
Preventing pollution that decreases water quality
Installing metred supplies (Air-rated taps, water metres)
Reducing Water consumption at home
collect the cold water while waiting for hot water
Using water bottles instead of glasses when drinking
Not running the taps during activities (Brushing your teeth, washing the dishes etc.)
Checking water meter for leaks
reduce 60 seconds in the shower
Lesotho: The Highland Water Project
Was it a success?
The Highland Water Transfer scheme was a
because despite it helping the residents of both Lesotho and South Africa by boosting possible economic development and quality of life, it had insanely high costs and the water is not sustainably kept, so water conservation is now a problem there.
Largest manufacturing scheme in Africa that took 30 years to complete.
Disadvantages to the scheme
For South Africa
Increased Water tariffs to help pay for the scheme are too expensive for the poorer population of South Africa
40% of the water is lost in Leakages.
South Africa fund the majority of the project, which peaks at around
4 Billion US Dollars ($)
Destruction of wetland system in Lesotho's Highlands causes specific animal species to go endangered which decreases the biodiversity of the area.
Corruption and certain people groups halted the production of the Polihali Dam
40% of the water is lost by leakages due to poorly maintained infrastructure.
Was a very expensive project: Costs peaked at
4 Billion Dollars (US$)
which could have been better spent on development techniques or medical research that could have better effects.
30,000 people that used to live in the area behind the dam had to migrate due to the flooding of the land.
This results in Schoolchildren not being able to get to school easily and taking diversions, causing them to lose valuable education time. This potentially effects the Literacy Rate of children in Lesotho, which restricts their chances of being employed.
700Km^2 of Farmland was flooded behind the dam to make a reservior
This negatively affected farmers that lived in the area by the decrease in crop yield, not allowing them to have a stable income and lower availability to food (Sustenance faming)
Benefits to the Scheme
The capital city of Lesotho, Maseru will be supplied with 90% of the population having access to clean, safe water.
South Africa benefits from this scheme by:
Further trade deals that can be made between Lesotho and South Africa, which results in economic developments and income for both nations.
It keeps large scale industries (e.g, Power Stations and Metal manufacturing) open due to the availability of water used as a coolant for the resources in the factories.
This in effect raises the GDP of South Africa as the companies are able to stay open. It also means that there will be no price increases in energy consumption that the public have to pay for.
It will meet the demand for the increasing urban population of Johannesburg.
It decreases the Water Stress issue in Johannesburg, which prevents the need to hosepipe/ water usage bans and limits
It employed over 1000 people into the construction process which diversifies the Employment sector of Lesotho.
It boosts the GDP of Lesotho as the transfer of water to South Africa supports 75% of the country's GDP alone.
It supplied Lesotho with more clean water to the residents, which increases the life expectancy and decreases poverty due to a higher access to clean water.
Completed in 2003
A Scheme in Africa that aims to supply more clean water to South African Cities such as Johannesburg, due to the city not having a river running through it.