FORENSIC 1 (WAYS OF MEASURING CRIME (OFFICIAL STATISTICS: monitors crime…
WAYS OF MEASURING CRIME
OFFICIAL STATISTICS: monitors crime rates throughout England & Wales by collecting info surveys to identify crime trends across country.
- POLICE RECORDING OF CRIME: measures how many crimes have been reported to police. not including crimes eventually proven guilty, just recorded ones. Minor crimes = higher figures.
:red_cross: MISREPRESENTATIVE FIGURE: many CRIMES NOT REPORTED due to fear of reporting, lack of time, lack of faith in police to catch offenders + social pressure.
- THE CRIME SURVEY OF ENGLAND & WALES: interviews large sample of population on their experiences w crime & applies findings to general population.
:red_cross: DOESN'T TAKE INTO ACCOUNT EVERY CRIMINAL ACT.
:red_cross: SELF-REPORT = unreliable.
:check: - UPATED ANNUALLY = keep up w trends & new crimes -> effective
OFFENDER SURVERYS questioning offenders & what crime they have committed (focus of alcohol & drug abuse). asked about person victimisation. Pick up crime trends & patterns of offending behaviour & attitudes & unreported crime if offender opens up.
:check: EXPLAINS WHY CRIMES COMMITTED -> PRACTICAL APP FOR IMPROVING SOCIETY.
:red_cross: SELF REPORT = lacks reliability & validity
:check::!!: THE 14th PRISONER SURVEY
- MALE OFFENDERS:
45% drunk at time of offence.
90% said to regularly drink more than 10 units a day when out of prison.
44% witnessed abuse violence at home.
- FEMALE OFFENDERS:
50% drunk at time of offence.
28% worried alcohol problem after release still.
OFFENDER PROFILING: identify likely suspects and analyse patterns may predict future offenders/victims.
- MODUS OPERANDI - criminals have own method of committing crim.
BOTTOM-UP APPROACH - builds image of potential criminal from facts & figures collated from previous crimes of same type.
- INTERPERSONAL COHERENCE - assumption that behaviour is consistent across situations & everyday behaviour is similar to way a crime if committed.
- TIME & PLACE - live/work
- CRIMINAL CHARACTERISTICS - putting criminals into categories.
- CRIMINAL CAREER - how far into criminal experience offenders are & how patterns of crime might progress.
- FORENSIC AWARENESS - offenders show awareness of forensic investigation will have committed crime before & been through criminal justice system.
e.g. GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILING - location & timing aspects of crime.
- LOCATEDNESS - where attack occurs? multiple locations indicates rough living area for criminal.
- SYSTEMATIC CRIME LOCATION CHOICE - familinairty of location > represents security
COMMUTERS - travel to commit crime
MARAUDERS - commit crimes close to home
- COMPARATIVE CASE ANALYSIS - other crimes should be considered as being committed by same offender. - more crime by 1 person = more accurate, application of geographical profiling.
:check: :!!: JOHN DUFFY - raped 11 women at railway stations in south east England, 2 were killed, crimes escalating.
- Dr David Canter, criminal profiler, came up w a profile of a characterics that John Duffy matched very well to and he was caught and sentenced to prison forever. :check: :!!:
:red_cross: STATISTICAL INFO FROM PREVIOUS CRIMES MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE/EASY TO GATHER. - unreliable & invalid.
TOP DOWN APPROACH - gather all evidence from crime scene & enter into database to pick up varying aspects of criminal signatures - profile.
- MURDER TYPE
- PRIMARY INTENT - intentional or accident? pre-mediated or not? murder may be committed as consequence of another crime, gives different image of criminal than one who sets out to commit murder.
- VICTIM RISK - elderly, children & prostitutes > low risk targets bc offer little resistance.
- OFFENDER RISK - how risky was crime to do?
- ESCALATION - extent which crime escalated from previous offences/potential to escalate. - gives profiler pattern of behaviours & help pre
empt future crimes.
6. TIME FACTORS - night or day? gives routine of offender & risk levels.
- LOCATION FACTORS - criminals environment, transport options, home.
- ORGANISED CRIMINALS: high intelligence, socially & sexually competent, skilled occupation, monitors media coverage of crimes.
- DISORGANISED: average intelligence, socially & sexually incompetent, poor work history, no interest in media coverage.
- :check::!!: ARTHUR SHAWCROSS - served 15 years & released. targeted prostitutes - murdered 11 over 2 years & many bodies found in Genesse River in New York State. Victims strangled, beaten, mutilated.
criminal profiler, Gregg McCurry found criminal to be: male, white, late 20's-early 30's, previous offender fo violent crime , low paid job, driver of cheap car, living near Genese River, keen on hunting/fishing. Arthur revisit victims body & caught by police at time, sentenced to 250 years. :check: :!!:
- :red_cross: EACH CRIME SCENE IS UNIQUE - different variables should be accounted for - difficult to apply = lack of validity.
- :red_cross: ONLY 2 CATEGORIES OF CRIMINAL - too simplistic. criminals may not fit in either, difficult to predict characteristics.