Anaesthetics: Nitrous oxide, 1795 Thomas Beddoes, laughing gas, originally used for recreational druuuugs, 1844 Horace Wells used it for teeth removal, didn't convince loads of doctors. Ether, William Clark, 1842, ether had to be transported in large, heavy boxes, hard to inhale, hard to control, caused vomiting, highly flammable. Chloroform, 1847 James Simpson, makes the patient sleep. Thought that soldiers should endure the pain of surgery (Crimean War), some patients died due to overdose of chloroform. Crowd won over by John Snow using it on Victoria's labour.