The Case of the Greek Cities (GROUP 2)
Alexander's behaviour varies depending on the attitude of the city.
ultimately the league was the kings 'channel of communication' and he would do whatever he wanted, whatever gave him the best advantage.
when alexander left to Asia minor he gave the Antipater, his european general, the power to act on his behalf within the league
during the olympic games celebration in 324 alexander ordered cities to recall their exiles (the numbers were in the thousands) this showed his power to intervene but the exiles being reintergrated into society caused major problems like disposition especially when it came to confiscated property
Islands Chios and Lesbos seemed to be members of the Corinthian league.because the league quickly became nothing more than a token status (no power or privileges) the constitutional issues aren't very important.
The same was true of the Phoenician cities, which were not under the jurisdiction of the satrap of Syria, but had to pay their tribute via Koiranos. In this way, two problems were solved: the system took care of the need for the king and his administration to monitor payments and channel contribution (syntaxis) and tribute (phoros); and the cities' civic autonomy was respected (including that of the Phoenician cities) since they were no longer directly dependant on the satrap
Year 331 Alexander introduces financial plan and rehires Harpalos as controller of finance.
After Antipater's victory over Agis III, he left the fate of Sparta in the hands of the league.
War and Peace (GROUP 4)
"Alexander is a reformer with a bold and lucid vision." pg 90
The removal of the Persian structures on the river Tigris to make travel through the river easier
Carsten Nieburhr observes a another view in direct contension with pro Alexander ideas
Alexander contrasted the Persians.
Western representations of the "benefits of colonisation" in the wake of "the exploration of land."
For Alexander the work of war and the work of peace went hand in hand
Wished to boost the economic value of Babylonia.
Much of the information of Alexander has a narrative, either painting him as a positive force or a negative one. (Western vs Eastern Views)
Development and Exploitation (GROUP 4)
Alexander sent out expeditions to the upper Nile, the Persian gulf, and the Red Sea. (He planned an expedition to the Caspian Sea)
The expeditions weren't voyages of discovery or scientific missions. instead they were missions for reports on the king about military expeditions against the Arab coast
Expeditions fed into zoologicial and botanical research being conducted by Lyceum in Athens.
The king wanted to make an inventory of all the riches of the empire.
Leader was anxious to increase agricultural productivity in the kingdom
implemented imperial policy, resources of one region were used to develop another
According to Arrian, 30,000 oxen from Swat (Gandhara) were sent back to Macedon; they were of unusual beauty and size.
Probable that Alexander hadn't seen such creatures.
Alexander never forgot that he was first and foremost the king of the Macedonians
Alexander and Coinage (GROUP 5)
During Alexanders conquest in Asia he gained an immense amount of precious metals in which he used to produce coins.
The use of coined money was already widespread as places such as Asia, Minor, Cyprus and Phoenicia utilised coins before the era of Alexander.
Alexander did not try to impose a single coinage and allowed coins already in existence.
It was found that Darius I was the first to mint coins and depict an image of a royal hero. This came in the form of a man with a bow in pursuit of an enemy.
Historian have been unable to locate any mints of Alexander's from the East.
Coins were made in gold (darics) and silver (sigloi)
Initially Alexander image was not printed on the coins, instead it illustrated Athena and Nike.
It is not known if Alexander consciously tried to solve things peacefully or if he merely lacked understanding of how to make political decisions. .
Many think Alexander planned to try and be more involved in the financial and administrative parts of his nation upon returning to Babylon.
Many territories were not subject to any form of direct administration but instead enjoyed a certain Independence of effective autonomy, either because Alexander allowed them to remain a status
Alexander lead his men through increasingly severe environments and on longer travels each time. A prime example however, was when they were returning from India they were told they would return to Macedon alongside the king. But he had plans to set up his kingdom inside India.
The Different Degrees of Royal Authority(GROUP 1) While the citizens of Priene are exempted from the imposition of a garrison and the payment of a financial contribution, the village land is treated quite differently: "The countryside i decree to be mine, and those dwelling in these villages are to pay tribute." In other words, Alexander reaffirms his royal rights to land that he considers to be his, "royal land" inherited from the Achæmenids
Alexander's new administration, like earlier, kept a close watch on the royal revenues, a large proportion of which derived from imposts on land, who status in relation to royal authority varied enormously
The Satrapal Administration (GROUP 1)
Alexander, left military powers with the western satraps. He knew that they would face revolts and other acts of insubordination from the people the governed
The Macedonian Satraps wielded considerable power. Although this never posed a threat to Alexanders authority.
Alexander retained most of the Achaemenid structures, in particular the Satrapies, the boundaries of which, remained unchanged.
The two nomarchs 332/1 appointed in Egypt only held power by name. Cleomenes was able to concentrate all civil power in his own hands and proved skilful at levying taxes.
Urbanisation and Control of Inhabitants (GROUP 3)
, a town established by Alexander for strategical purposes (he wanted towns to become
centres of the empire
, economically, militarily, commercially)
Arrian said this on the Alexandria
"For the sight seemed suitable for considerable development of the city... for an outpost of the country against the raids of the tribesmen dwelling on the other side of the river. He felt... a city would become great both for the numbers of settlers and the splendour of its name."
There is no proof that Alexander either planned or put into
effect policies of settlement
in the Middle East
The foundation of two fortresses on the Persian Gulf at the border of the Tigris and Euphrates in 324 BCE was made because of the
of the Arab neighbours.
Ten (or so)
towns were established
to help supervise the areas Alexander wanted to control (of Sogdiana & Bactria), showing he wanted towns to
help secure alliances/ towns
he had conquered
Order was needed to protect the won conquered lands.
Urbanised colonies (Alexandria's)
served 3 purposes
to control/settle nomadic (or migratory) tribes
to help to stimulate the economy
to add more military defence (with added man power etc).
; fortification of capital of 'King Mousikanos', "it's position seemed to him well suited for
the people living round about..."
"Greek cities to keep the barbarian inhabitants of the surrounding area obedient..."
"founded substantial towns in the strongest places fo the country..."
Conquest and Economic Development (GROUP 3)
Other writers had an opposing view as they considered him to be:
indulgent in massacres and destruction
unceasingly devoted to war
incapable of administering an empire, except when returning from India
Alexander was seen as a 'Grand Economist' by multiple writers who claimed that he:
opened new routes,
introduced the concept of a monetary economy in regions where this concept wasn't established
increased agricultural productivity using irrigation
Two ways of viewing Alexander: 1. As an Adventurer, reducing his instant responses to immediate needs 2. As an Empire-builder who's focus was on the expansion of the Achaemenid heritage and empire.
Expeditions and Commerce in the Persian Gulf (GROUP 5)
From Indian Alexanders fleet returned in three separate routes.
Craterus: Reached Arachosia following a northern route.
Alexander: Used a coastal route through Gedrosia and Carmania.
Nearchus: Sail up the Persian Gulf along the eastern shore.
Alexander wanted trade between India and Babylonia via the Persian Gulf
Alexander took the costal route home from India. Alexander's main purpose was to locate the ports and establish them as deports for food and water. This allowed Nearchus's men to get fresh supplies.
The Persian Gulf was to be desired by Alexander due to it's extensive coastline, well supplied harbours, excellent ports, wealthy land which grew good produce and all kinds of spices.
Alexanders reasoning for colonising the Persian Gulf was due to the thought that it would become prosperous country similar to Phoenicia. (Arrian, VII.19.5-6)
Alexander planned to turn the Persian Gulf into an entirely new commercial network.
Forming a connection between the Western Empire and his new Colonial Empire in India, gave Alexander military security and administrative control.
Areas of Indirect Government (GROUP 2)
Many Territories enjoyed independence or effective autonomy, this was due to Alexander allowing them to or because incompleteness of conquest.
Some Regions were turned into satrapies without completeness of effective conquest. Such as Cappadocia and Armenia
Cyrenes embassy was sent to Alexander - there they were defined by a treaty of alliance
Other countries incorporated Satrapies into their already traditional leaders of the government: This was particularly true for Paphlagonia - their only obligation was to provide military contingents. - thus maintaining most independence
In Phoenicia, most cities kept their kings and instututions, all except Sidon, which was replaced by Abdalonmus as a substitute
Some regions remained
, beyond satrapal influence - avoiding the influence of the satrapal and keeping independence
The Phoenician cities were obligated to contribute payments and military contingents to support Alexander and to thus keep partial independence
Cyprus and Cyrene were just two countries that never formed as part of the empire - Not included in Satrapal allocations (these allocations were made in 323 and 321)
In the Indus Valley satraps were appointed - rulers kept a local level authority
Territorial Control and Management of the Population
Another concern was the protection of strategic routes
These trade routes needed to remain accessible to allow Greek and Macedonian reinforcements in and enable armies to locate official supplies centers while on the move
This role was entrusted to the satraps in western provinces and the military commanders of the eastern satraps
Each governor had an occupation force made of Macedonian and Greek soldiers
To protect his empire, Alexander found it was crucial for him to maintain order within his subject regions
In order to do this, Alexander had to make agreements with local dynasts
Having such a large territory meant that Alexander had to find ways to manage his massive empire
bucephalus was here