Group Technique in Education (Different Kinds of Groups (III. Role Systems…
Group Technique in Education
Dissemination of group techniques: Every type of group creates a situation involving both advantages and limitation or riks.
B. Limited dissemination, uncertain results: 1.Reservation regarding extrapolating from evaluation. 2.Diversity and criticism.
A. Choice and experience:
Importance of training courses
C. Some general hypotheses 2. Basic hypotheses. 2. Consequences
D. Choice of strategy: 1. Advanced training. 2. Speeded-up transmission 3. General policy
What constitute a group?
Individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling ,achievement for common set of goals.
B. How does a group function?
Institions and isolation: The larger the grouping, the greater the phenomenanof uncertainty become.
Institutions and groups: Life in small groups enables individuals to perceive themselves as existing, complete with their own peculiarities.
Sub-culture, values and norms: They actively construct a shared way of life in relationship to the outside world.
A: Why does a social system function?
Institutions and the stablization of social relationship: Social institutions function in such a way as to protect us from uncertainties about relationship.
Institution and the social contract: The functioning of institional structures is so useful to individuals that they actively support them.
Relationship and uncertainsties: it is in the interest of everry individual in a group to stablize the potencial activity of others towardsnhimself, favoraurably if possible, but in any case in such as that can pedict it. (Robert Bales).
Different Kinds of Groups
C.Instructions involving affetivity
Therapy or experimental groups
D. Instructions involving rationality
I . Groups organized in terms of specific instructions: Group methods may be defined by the particular kind of instructions introduced into the relationship of the members among themselves or into their relationships with the environment
A. Instructions involving space
B. Instructions involving time
Future reserch grouop
E. Instructions involving the imagination
Directed waking - drem groups
F. Non-Directive or pluralistic instructions
Flexibly structured groups
II. Different ways of forming sub-groups: A subgroups faciltaes communication and exchanges within a group by stablishing degrees and thresholds in the establishment of relationships.
A. subgroups orgsnized in parallel
The "P N T" subgroup
Different ways of bringing sub-groups together again
B. Sub-groups organized in series or mutuality directing
Combination of combined hierarchical and alternating direction in sequence.
C. Juxtaposition of Different sub-groups: In this kind of group organization, the sub-groups are still all on the same level.
D. Organization and use of availabe means: The use either provided for form the outset or worked out leter, of various means of information or production.
III. Role Systems
Linking roles, external to the sub-group
Functional roles within the sub-group
Group-organizers and roles
Varied use of roes
Experiments with activity methods in schools and universities
b. Ttotal language or multimedia group
c. Non-directive teaching group
a. Activity methods in schools knowledge-pooling groups
Experiments concerning further education for adults
a. Sensitivity-training group for unemployed executives
b. Group dynamics in the Japanese national railroad corporation training method.
c. Q-sort: analysis of self-perceptionsin a group