Task 8 Goal setting + motivation (Study of subconscious on goal setting …
Task 8 Goal setting + motivation
What are Goals?
--> goal = discrepancy between current and end state which motivates ppl to decrease that difference :3!!
--> goal striving = how to achieve the goal !!
--> goal core (difficulty , specificity) --> leads to performance (mediated by the moderators + goal mechanisms) --> satisfaction --> willingness for new goals---> goal moderators
direct attention toward achieving the goal
high goals = generate more effort by ppl to achieve them as in compared to low goals
--> when ppl can allocate time they will allocate more time to pursue hard goals compared to low goals !!
(fun fact: There is often, however, a trade-off in work between time and intensity of effort. Faced with a difficult goal, it is possible to work faster and more intensely for a short period or to work more slowly and less intensely for a long period. Tight deadlines lead to a more rapid work pace than loose deadlines in the laboratory (Bryan & Locke, 1967b) as well as in the field (Latham & Locke, 1975).)
generate arousal, discovery, or applying task relevant knowledge
--> ppl automatically use skills they have learned before to achieve goals
--> if automated skills not available they'll use next best skills applicable to context
--> if task completely new they'll plan and come up with new skill to meet goal
--> people with high self efficacy more likely to develop new strategies
--> if task too complex, urging to do best is better than assigning performance goal
--> when people have proper strategies, people with high goal settings = more likely to use them
--> importance to person to attain goal
--> perceived self efficacy
--> how to improve:
-----> commitment / accountability --> affects importance
-----> giving training + role model / treat the in a way they can treat it --> self efficacy
= needed for people how well they are doing / how far they are form their goal :3 !!
--> the higher the complexity the higher skill needed
--> strategies not yet automated
--> but also the more complex the task the more strategies people use (bridge to other article info below more strategy = more resilience to setbacks)
--> assigned goal mediates both self efficacy and personal goal (personal goal also mediated by self efficacy)
---> self efficacy and personal goal together = mediate Performance :) !!
satisfaction (study and graph in article)
ppl who have goal for higher grade =
—> less statisfied as people with lower goals
——> even though people with higher goals = higher performance :p
---> they do it because they want to achieve their life goals of good job etc :P !!
--> link to 3rd article study about subconscious :3 !!
--> conscentiousness ppl = more goal oriented and set higher goals :p !!
Goal setting + dimensions
---> the more specific a goal the better!! (SMART GOALS)
--> approach > avoidant
--> reducing distant to desired end state
--> highly effective (success well defined by reaching end state)
--> increasing distance from undesired endstate
--> less effective (success isn't clearly defined how far from unsidesred state is far enough ? )
--> less effective than approach goals (except for quitting smoking)
-----> reformulate all avoidance goals to approach goals for better effect
level of difficulty
--> hard vs easy
--> smart goals
Some evidence for harder goals = higher performance
--> performance increase + higher performance appraisal of ppl (EHHH)
:!!:---> awareness of multiple ways to achieve goal = greater resilience to setbacks!
level of specificity
--> concrete vs abstract goals
closeness of end state (to current self)
--> near vs distant
--> mastery vs performance
mastery (same as learning goals)
--> focused on improving a certain skill
--> short term setbacks = treated as info on how to improve to acquire skill
--> increase self efficacy + more goal striving than performance goals !! (even if individuals fail these goals !)
--> focused on achieving a specific standard (eg. lose 25 pounds)
--> short term setbacks = treated as info on how they are inadequate!!
--> way worse than mastery goals, always choose mastery goals :D !!
Abandonment of goals
--> when faced with conflict either increase efforts or disengage
--> early abandonment because of:
Wrong goal setting
--> wrong reasons
--> conflict with other goals
--> conflict with immediate needs
Inadequate goal striving skills
--> frustration and anger = increase efforts!!! (its normal when striving for a goal :D!!) :!!:
--> sadness and depression = decrease goal striving + eventual abandonment
--> how to achieve goals that have been set!
---> can be remedied with below 4 strategies
People must plan and execute the behaviors to achieve their goal
--> insinuates people need to know:
what they can do to achieve goals
when to act to achieve their goals
:!!:---> awareness of multiple ways to achieve goal = greater resilience to setbacks!
Protecting their goals from disruption
--> by conflict with other goals or immediate needs that are not congruent with it (eg. person dieting giving in to cravings)
---> promote execution o behaviors to achieve goal
---> protect goals from disruptions (promotes goal attainment indirectly)
1. Prospection and planning
--> mental imagery of performing planned behavior to achieve goal
students mental imagery that visualized studying = studied more and better grades than students visualizing good grade
--> mastery (visualizing studying) vs performance goals (higher grades) :) !!!
can also identify potential obstacles + challenges
e.g. at the end of the day to drawn out / exhausted to go to gym, --> move going to gym in the early morning instead to promote healthier living and achieve their goal
can build contingencies for when a challenge encountered that was identified by mental imagery :D !!
2. Automating Behavior
If people work towards goal in specific context, similar context can trigger work towards goal automatically
(eg. students that move schools and did exercises, if context in other school similar = more likely to do exercises
--> protects goals from disruptions too (eg. seeing chocolate cake = reminds of dietary goals, leads to refusal of cake)
--> if then relationships (if think about chocolate, eat apple instead)
--> negative ones found no to be effective!! (not not processed :'D!! just makes it more salient)
3. Construal / interpretation
--> peoples perception about their goals change
--> e.g when goal in future = desirable , when in the future = less desirable (eg. wanting to work out but then when time comes your like nah rather netflix and chill)
----> changing interpretation / construal of immediate health goals = positively influences their long term goals :3 !!
------> basically by doing strategy 1 well, you can overcome this by moving it to the morning except for after the work hours
4. Effortful inhibition
--> about protecting your goals from interference (feelings, actions behavior that go against your goal) :) !!
requires cognitive capacities (system 1 = heuristic vs
system 2 slow deliberate
:!:requires motivational resources though:!:
(depleted through effortful inhibiton:3 !!
depletes them at the same time its being used for effortful inhibition (if too depleted inhibition less successful!)
Study of subconscious on goal setting :D!!
--> look at abstract all we need :3 !!
--> conscentiousness ppl = more goal oriented and set higher goals :p !! (if goal was a learning goal / mastery goal)
--> moderator for subconscious goal performance :D!
-----> IF not high in conscientiousness = primes NO EFFECT / no difference in performance
ppl high in C , primed high, --> set high performance goals performed better
--> than ppl high in C primed with low goals --> set low goals and performed weaker :p
-------> prime affects performance setting and performance !!
roughly know design
---> work it out in better shorter detail :3 !!
directly measured performance
. The first experiment examined the effect on performance of three primes that connote the difficulty levels of a goal in the subconscious. Participants (n 5 91) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they were primed with either a photograph of a person lifting 20 pounds (easy goal), 200 pounds (moderately difficult goal), or 400 pounds (difficult goal). Following a filler task, participants were asked to “press as hard as you can” on a digital weight scale. Participants who were primed with the difficult goal exerted more effort than those who were primed with the moderate or easy goal.
first goal setting then measure of performance :D !!
—> find linear relationship between subconscious (priming) and goalsetting (harder goals if primed with harder images :D !!)
The second experiment examined whether choice of goal difficulty level can be primed. Participants (n 5 133) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. Those primed with a difficult goal consciously chose to set a more difficult goal on a brainstorming task than those who were primed with an eas- ier goal. Similarly, their performance was significantly higher. Conscientious- ness moderated the subconscious goal–performance relationship while the self- set conscious goal partially mediated the subconscious goal–performance relationship.
and how what they say in abstract know what measures they had
IMPORTNAT :!: she explicitly spoke about this in tutorial 1!!