CH 8. ALLIANCES AND SHIFTS
CH 8. ALLIANCES AND SHIFTS
EXPANSION OF ALLIANCE SYSTEMS
EISENHOWER, President 1953-1961
Emphasis on MAKING ALLIES, more so than Truman - compensating for lack of conventional forces?
Strategy: Create GLOBAL NETWORK of alliance, isolate USSR/China! - Consequence? Less direct US military presence, but NUCLEAR UMBRELLA means regional gallies provide ground forces for regional defence from potential Sov aggression
September 1954: Southeast Asia Collective Defence Treaty, brokered by SoS John Foster Dulles
Formed after 1953 Sino-Soviet Relations strengthening
MAY - USSR agrees to give China defence related tech and SEPTEMBER - Khrushchev vists, USSR give significant $ and tech expertise to improve Chinese economy/security
Many members NOT from SE Asia! Few common boarders, SV, Laos, Cambodia etc not included!
Konrad Adenauer (First Chancellor of WG) knew aligning with West would strengthen WG - would prevent resurgence of German nationalism, as USA saw WG as 'capitalist haven' ie. safeguard against communist expansion beyond that point
NOVEMBER 1949: WG joins Council of Europe = direct rep at OEEC
MAY 1952: General Treaty - FGR has full sovereignty! Also agrees to renounce nuclear weapons/limit German army
All above points = Germany now able to rearm!
MAY 1955 - NATO! Shows commitment USA has to using Germany as regional force, BUT also concept of regional alliances designed specifically to contain communism at the lowest possible cosy
May 1955 - Immediate response to USA admitting FGR to NATO and allowing them to rearm
Sought to further consolodate 'relations' ie. control over satellite states
Pact was presented as COLLECTIVE SECURITY STRATEGY - non threatening! But A$ said "In the event of an armed attacked on one or several saignatories, each state that is a party to this treaty shall render the states so attacked immediate assistance by all means necessary, including the use of armed force"
Military reinforcement of satellite structue, ALSO consolidated political/economic Soviet power
DOMINO THEORY, US ATTITUDES TO FRENCH INDOCHINA
BACKGROUND: 1950 - USA supports independence for Indochina, 1949 Bao Dai restored to power in Vietnamese part of Indochina, BUT 1950 Ho Chi Minh (more popular, nationalist) proclaims DRofVietnam
DRofVietnam puts pressure of France since 1950, Eisenhower committed to supporting France! Thought SE Asia vulnerable to communism, DOMINO THEORY
Eisenhower opposed use of conventional forces BUT 1954: USA paying 75% cost of war! Eisenhower wants diplomatic solution
USSR and PCP want to appear moderate - also seek diplomatic solution, China put some pressure on HCM to negotiate a peace
JULY 1954, THE GENEVA CONFERENCE
Ceasefire, no longterm solution to Vietnam. 2 zones creates along 17th parallel, French had to move out of North and nationalists out of South
Division was meant to be temporary - elections meant to be held after 2 years
SOUTH: US REGIME
Refused to sign agreements!
New president Diem, USA pledges to support this regime
Eisenhower: Supports existence of pro-American independent non-communist gov in Vietnam, wants to AID such a gov to eliminate pro-communist subversion!
EISENHOWER, DULLES, BRINKMANSHIP
EISENHOWER'S FOREIGN POLICY
Generally, continuity of Truman's National Security Policy
USA must have influence in Western Europe, and a collective defence strategy in this region should exist (including Germany and all its economic/military potential!)
USA must retain influence in Asia
Soviet threat was real and significant! Containment to USSR expansionism should be fundamental to US security interests
USA must retain strong nuclear arsenal/conventional forces yo counter Soviet opportunism
BUT Rejected Truman's commitment to expansion of conventional forces! Believed containment was limited = New policy, NEW LOOK
What was it?
Containment = Stalemate - JFD (SoS) wants ROLL BACK, believed US international/national interests depend on reducing presence of communism, opponent of Truman's communism
End to Truman's containment
Eisenhower agreed w Roll Back BUT insisted liberation had to occur through peaceful means - NEVER ATTEMPTS TO UNDERMINE SOVIET SPHERE
Emphasis on nuclear power, more so than under containment policy - Increased reliance! IMPORTANCE: $ effective method of guaranteeing security
OCTOBER 1953 - NSC 162/2 emphasised importance of threat of nuclear war/showing nuclear superiority in deterring aggression
JFD saw nuclear arsenal is diplomatic tool - a way to force agreements from communist opponents!
Saw it as essential to successful FP