Relationships with Environments since 1990 (Contemporary societal…
Relationships with Environments since 1990
The factors influencing societal relationships
The effects of different technologies
The impact of technology on the outdoor experience
use of technology: synthetic tents, sleeping bags, GPS's, mobile phones, waterproof clothing, fuel stoves, qualifications
positive impacts: increased access, easier, less need for experience, comfort, access to remote areas
negative impacts: less challenging, more costly, decreased wilderness experience, increased negative impacts
The role of technology in mediating relationships
living in cities- technology creates the barrier between the natural environment and day to day life
living in rural areas- natural environment is a normal and integral part of daily life where weather and seasons impact type and hours of work. People monitor rainfall, soil quality, temperature etc.
the environment is no longer viewed as alien/hostile and people are more involved in conservation and sustainability
examples: tours, guides, packages, etc
Commercialisation of outdoor environments
The impact of commercialisation on experiences
commercialisation: the process of bringing a product onto the market
commodity: anything that can be bought or sold
private companies charge clients money to experience activities in the natural environment, meaning they no longer need to develop skills
The role of commercialisation on the outdoor environment
experiences are seen as commodities
positive impacts: an opportunity to educate people about minimal impact strategies, native and exotic species, safe and sustainable practises and codes of conduct
negative impacts: companies who focus only on profit bring large groups to visit the same area repeatedly and fail to follow minimal impact strategies, overpriced experiences, the environment is seen as seperate to people, making it easy to exploit
ecotourism- Gippsland High Country Tours 5 day birdwatching tour
Arlberg snow packages
Coonwarra farm resort packaged experiences
Social responses to risk taking
society's response: how individuals and groups respond to risk taking behaviours
risk taking: activities that are percieved to have a high level of risk or danger
percieved risk: what people believe is the level of danger or risk in an activity
real risk: a more balanced understanding of the real risk of an activity
perceived risk vs real risk examples:
perceived risk > real risk: high ropes course
percieved risk< real risk: mountain bike riding
percieved risk = real risk: snowboarding
Risk Competency Model:
timid participant: perceived risk > real risk
arrogant participant: percieved risk < real risk
measured participant: percieved risk = real risk
society's response to misadventure
often misinterprets events, dramatises
often mirrors media, searches for guilty party to appease grief, relies on media for information
undertaken by police, investigators or other relevant authority
to determine cause of death
Criminal or Civil Proceedings
charges people with negligence (civil) or manslaughter (criminal), less likely to occur if there is no death
Industry Self Regulation (Recommended)
codes of conduct to government the use of equipment, are not the law
restricts areas, increases safety requirements, changes training requirements, ratios for large groups, less likely to occur without death, legislation rather than self regulation
Impact on relationships with the outdoor environment
Government and self regulations improve safety and restrict access to areas which may reduce the sense of freedom
buildings diminish visual beauty
increased regulations and training requirements increase costs for companies and participants
Impact on natural environment
restrictions may promote conservation and preservation of the environment
restricting certain areas may increase pressure on other locations
barriers, signs and roads negatively impact environment and aesthetics but also encourage concentrating impacts to one area
Alice Sloan - school girl killed on school camp by a tree branch
Andrew McAuly - solo kayak from Tasmania to New Zealand
Depictions of the environment in the media
The Great Outdoors, Getaway, Bear Grylls, David Attenborough
Ken Duncan Photography
Appeal to urbanisation, making people want to interact with the environment more.
Results in people appreciating and having a minimal impact on the environment.
peaceful, adversary, adventure.
encourages visitors as it looks idealic, causing increased impacts.
billboards, magazines, newspapers, commercials.
Western Australia: Real Thing
John Mayer, Xavier Rudd, Gotye, John Butler.
Increases people's awareness of the need to protect and conserve the environment.
Touching the Void - Joe Simpson and Simon Yates.
127 Hours - Aaron Ralston.
leads to increased health of the environment because of a decrease in pressure on the environment from human interaction.
Contemporary societal relationships
a resource to meet peoples needs.
adversary: a challenge to overcome.
gymnasium: a place to participate in physical activity.
temple/cathedral: somewhere to connect with nature, aesthetically pleasing.
museum: a place to restore history.
conservation: the positive interaction of people in the environment to work in a way that results in the protection and restoration of the environment.
perception: museum, temple, a place to appreciate, a place to protect and restore for future generations, intristic (has a right to exist without human interferance)
interaction: revegetation, erosion control, weed and pest control, habitat restoration, campsite development, clean up programs, breeding programs, national parks
impact: allows natives to flourish, revegetation provides food sources, increased water quality, protects natives, reduction of damaging activities
Local Example - East Gippsland Catchment Management Authority (EGCMA):
perception - a place to appreciate and restore for future generations
interaction - removal of willow trees from the Mitchell River
impact - willow trees block the river's natural course, thus removing them restores natural flow and increases water quality
interaction - rocks and native flora stabilise banks
impact - reduces bank erosion, increases native vegetation and biodiversity
interaction - installation of fish habitats made from large timber structures
impact - provides a breeding habitat away from predators and slows river flow, decreasing erosion and stabilising the bank
recreation: pastimes that are a diversion from day to day routines, either passive or active
perceptions: gymnasium, adversary, a place for fun/relaxation/fitness
interactions: bushwalking, skiing, rock climbing, surfing, canoeing, mountain bike riding
impact: establishment of tracks causes erosion and habitat fragmentation, erosion at entry/exit points of a river bank, can lead to an appreciation of the environment and therefore people are more likely to protect and preserve it
Local Example - Mitchell River Area
perception: gymnasium that provides the terrain for activities
interaction: bushwalking at the Mitchell River National Park
impact: creating tracks causes habitat fragmentation and erosion
Primary industry: the growing, harvesting and extracting of natural environments
perception: a resource to make money, with an increase in sustainable development
impact: decreased water quality, loss of topsoil due to land clearing, degradation of soil nutrient values, soil compaction and decreased biodiversity due to grazing as land is dominated by only a few species of flora
Local Example - Mitchell River Area
perception: a resource to make money for farmers with the need to sustain the environment for productivity
interaction: Dairy farmers at Gleneladale Flats make voluntary agreements with EGCMA to fence cattle away from the river
impact: increased water quality and decreased bank erosion
Tourism: people travelling to visit the outdoor environments awn from their usual surroundings for recreational, commercial, educational or aesthetic purposes
perception: temple, gymnasium, a resource to make money or educate others to protect and preserve the environment
interactions: surf lessions, here riding tours, 4WD tours
impact: increased visitors = increased impacts
Local Example - Coonwarra Farm Resort
perception: a resource to make money
interaction: horse riding tours for the general public or camping groups
impact: soil compaction and the creation of trails causes erosion and habitat fragmentation
Local Example - Echo Bend Caravan Park
perception: a resource to make money
interaction: land clearing and soil compaction from park sites
impact: a loss of vegetation from soil compaction causes erosion and decreases water quality
Ecotourism: the responsible travel to natural environments that conserves the environment and improves the well being of local people
elements of ecotourism:
travel to an intact, natural environment
money spent goes back into the environment
Local Example - Gippsland High Country Tours 5 day birdwatching tour in the Mitchell River National Park
Social and Political Debates
Social debate: An Inconvenient Truth
66% changed their mind
89% are more aware
74% changed their habits
Political debate: carbon tax where industries are taxed based on their greenhouse gas production in order to reduce CO2 emissions.
May have a negative social effect with cost being passed on to customers
Kyoto protocol: an international agreement between developed countries to reduce CO2 emissions
Human behaviour is causing a rise in greenhouse gases, altering the global climate.
Earth's atmosphere has warmed and cooled naturally over thousands of years.
perception - the environment needs to be restored and preserved for future resources.
interaction - more likely to use environmentally friendly practises such as taking shorter showers, solar energy, recycling, etc.
impact - less CO2 emissions, increased biodiversity due to the protection of forests
perception - the environment is a limitless resource that produces energy for human activities.
interaction - using fossil fuels.
impact - increased sea levels, decreased biodiversity, decreased snow cover.
Water management: planning, developing, distributing and managing optimum use of water sources to ensure continued supply and fair distribution
Political debate: desalination plant where the Victorian Govt wanted to ensure a supply of clean, drinkable water to Melbourne, independent of rainfall.
"Our water, our future" policy to capture, recycle and save water as well as using the desalination plant.
Social debate: Foodbowl modernisation plant to redirect water from Eildon catchment to Sugarloaf Reservoir in NE Melbourne.
Farmers opposed due to the plan diminishing their water supply.
Environmentalists opposed due to it leading to degredation of the highland catchment.
Murray River tourist operators opposed as it effects long term viability.
perception - environment seen as a resource to provide water for residential use.
interaction - water saving initiatives.
impact - increased energy use/CO2 emissions.
perception - environment is not a limitless resource and needs to be protected.
interaction - campaign against desalination plant.
impact - improved water storage, maintained biodiversity, reduced CO2 emissions.
Renewable energy: energy obtained from natural resources that can be constantly replenished such as wind farms, solar panels, hydro electricity, tidal and wave movement, geothermal energy and biofuels.
Political debates: govt set renewable energy targets.
Liberal - 20% by 2020
Labour - 50% by 2030
Social debates: Wonthaggi Wind Farms
For - reduces impacts on environment, solution to greenhouse gases, impact is insignificant.
Against - a visual blot, decreased property values, noise pollution, threat to birds and public health.
perception - environment must be protected, climate change is an urgent threat.
interaction - construction of wind farms, reduction of coal mining.
impact - decreased CO2 emissions, less climat change, visual impact, noise pollution, health impacts
perception - a resource to exploit.
interaction - continue to mine coal and use fossil fuels.
impact - climate change continues, preserves bird species, increased CO2 emissions.
Australian Labour Party (ALP)
Values and Policies:
Renewable energy - 50% by 2030.
Cutting pollution - Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) which forces the largest polluters to pay if they exceed limits.
Marine parks - expand marine park network and compensate fishery loss as a result.
Habitat and species conservation - strengthene environmental laws to protect vulnerable species.
major left wing political party
represents the middle and working class
environment = human needs
Values and Policies:
Renewable energy - 20% by 2020.
Cutting pollution - no ETS.
Habitat and species conservation - $200 million towards threatened species recovery fund