Brain week 1 resit ([H2] How does the nervous system function? (Peripheral…
Brain week 1 resit
[H2] How does the nervous system function?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
: All the spinal and cranial nerves that carry sensory information to the CNS from the muscles, joints and skin. Also transmits outgoing motor instructions to produce movement
Cranial nerves: These nerves connect parts of the head with the brain. There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
: Balances the body's internal organs via the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nerves
[H7] How do we study the brain's struture and function?
Brain Reading techniques
Techniques that measure
Single Cell Recording
Using micro electrodes and that are
inserted inside a cell but put
multiple of them: now you can distinguish up to fourty neurons
Now the electrodes are places
a cell. This gives a clear reading of this
single neurons activity
on top of the brain surface
-- measures electrical activity.
that measure the
(electrical) activity of the brain
. This method is completely
You can find
regular wave patterns
back in the EEG during
is found often when people are in a relaxed state (with eyes closed) and aren't performing any tasks.
This you can manipulate into
(Event related potentials)
reading is relating the
measurements in time to
that occured while measuring (e.g. playing a sound or any other sensible stimulus).
You can find
back in the ERP
on top of the scalp
that read the
can plot a signal captured in a
function of frequency and time
Techniques for determining the different
in the brain
(functional near infrared spectroscopy)
Form of tomography, where light transmitted through the cortical tissue is gathered to form an image of the brains
usage of oxygen
(positron emission tomography)
Technique that sees the
blood flow changes
in the brain. It measures
changes in oxygen and glucose levels
, and is therefore handy in
analyzing metabolic activities
in the brain tissue.
(functional magnetic resonance imaging)
changes in iron or oxygen
in the brain while the person is
performing a task / is resting
. It measures the
in the brain and shows these via its
of blood deoxyhaemoglobin
You have to make a specific amount of inferences from the resulting image to that what's really going on. This is measured as
(volume + pixels), parts of a 3D grid, are used to visualize & analyze scientific data
Determining the brain structure
(naming all different areas) and
(show differences between light and dark regions)
(magnetic resonance imaging)
3 dimensional image
from sending a
through the brain, and later a radiowave . Next, it reads the radio signal that the
(magnetic resonance spectroscopy) uses thesignal from the hydrogen protons to determine the concentration of brain metabolites
(diffusion tensor imaging) detects movement and direction of H2O molecules
(computed tomography) give you an image picturing the brain in its cross section. Form of X-Ray.
Stimulating specific brain areas
(deep brain stimulation) = technique where electrodes are surgically put insice the brain to stimulate a specific area of interest in order to producs specific behavior.
(transcranial magnetic stimulation) a coil is put over the scalp that sends magnetic fields in order to stimulate the underlying brain tissue.
Other methods include
(identifies amount of particular brain chemicals)
combine genetics & light in order to control living cells
is to stain the brains so that cerebral cells can be seen and identified with the help of a light microscope
Choosing a right method
[H1] What are the origins of brain and behaviour?
static (MRI) vs. dynamic (fMRI)