Sociology Paper 2 (Agents of social control (Religion, Teaches right and…
Sociology Paper 2
Agents of social control
Religion, Teaches right and wrong
Work, need to conform to earn a living.
Schools, expectations of teachers through hidden curriculum
Peer groups, informs attitudes to society.
Family, teaches right and wrong
Legal system, most powerful institution dealing with social control
Marxist views on mass media
They believe that the mass media are just one of the many ways in which the 'ruling class' control the way people think and act
Pluralism in mass media
The argument that having newspapers and television studios owned by a variety of different corporations is a sign of healthy democracy.
Key words in Mass media
Bias: Not taking a neutral view but favouring one side of an argument or debate
Gatekeeper: One who has editorial control over media content
Spin: Managing the message to influence the way in which events are reported
Image: The identity that they wish the present to the world.
Censorship: Preventing certain information from becoming public knowledge
Propaganda: The selection and control of information usually for political ends
Mass media is communication—whether written, broadcast, or spoken—that reaches a large audience. This includes television, radio, advertising, movies, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and so forth.
The 'hypodermic syringe'.
The audience receives daily injections of messages from television and newspapers
These messages work as a drug and are seen as having a direct and powerful effect on people on people's behaviour or beliefs.
The media stereotypes how gender should be presented rather than keeping it realistic.
Minority Ethnic Groups
Media shows that black people are negatively reported on and subjects such as war and famine are over reported.
In Britain reports of crimes often linked black people with mugging, conflict and inner-cities riots rather than focusing on the racism that they are experiencing.
Crimes link to social group
Statistics show that most people receiving criminal convictions are between 14-24
Ethnic groups such as afro Caribbean and black Africans are most likely to be stopped by the police.
Crime rates are higher in inner city areas which often have working class backgrounds. Inner cities have pubs and clubs which can lead to antisocial behaviour.
People of working class are more likely to commit crimes, rather than upper class as they will not need basic essentials like food and water so the working class people are forced to steal.
Statistics show men commit more crimes than females, In 2006 male offenders in England outnumbered female offenders more than four to one.
Marxist criminologists see power being held by the Bourgeoisie and laws are a reflection of Bourgeois ideology. The legal system (lawyers, judges and the courts) and the police all serve the interests of the Bourgeoisie. These institutions are used to control the masses, prevent revolution and keep people in a state of false consciousness.
Capitalism is Crimogenic –This means that the Capitalist system encourages criminal behaviour.
The Law is made by the Capitalist elite and tends to work in their interests.
All classes, not just the working classes commit crime, and the crimes of the Capitalist class are more costly than street crime.
The state practices Selective Law Enforcement – The Criminal Justice system mainly concerns itself with policing and punishing the marginalised, not the wealthy, and this performs ideological functions for the elite classes.
Durkheim believes that crime is inevitable and is a natural aspect of social life.
crime is present in all types of society, indeed the crime weight is higher in the more advanced industrialized countries.
Not every member of society can be equally committed to the collective sentiments (the shared values and moral beliefs of society). Since individuals are exposed to different influences and circumstances.
Durkheim says that even in a ‘society of saints’ populated by perfect individuals deviance would still exist. The general standards of behaviour would be so high that the slightest slip would be regarded as a serious offence. Thus the individual who simply showed bad taste, or was merely impolite, would attract strong disapproval.
In 2012/13, the arrests were 15% female, and 85% male.
The prison population in June 2014 was 5% female and 95% male, and in the last 10 years, the male prison population has increased while the female population has decreased.
1 in 3 males and fewer than 1 in 10 females are likely to have a conviction of some kind by their 40th birthday.
Female suspects were more likely to receive a caution than men who’d be prosecuted
Interactionism in sociology focuses on the way that we act, or make conscious choices regarding our behaviour that proceed from how we interpret situations.
Theorists in Internationalist
Max Weber came up with the theory of the class system