Cold_War_Thai_Bautista_Akinlusi (Rivalry, Mistrust, and Accord (The…
Rivalry, Mistrust, and Accord
The breakdown of the grand alliance and the emergence of superpower rivalry in Europe and Asia (1943-1949):
fear and aggression- the soviets feared that that the Germans would invade and wanted the U.S and Great Britain to help out in facing the German Troops. The U.S also wanted the Soviet to help in facing off Japan, but the soviets refused unless the battle with Germany was over with.
economic interests - The Soviets wanted the Germans to pay reparations but the US did not because they didn't want the same outcome as the Treaty of Versailles which was when Germany retaliated.
role of ideology - The Soviets wanted to expand their territory and the US didn't want this because it would also allow for the spread of communism. The US also wanted to be able to overpower any nation.
a comparison of the roles of the US and the USSR: The U.S were in charge of helping with the defeat of the German Troops in return for the Soviets help in defeating Japan.
The US, USSR, and China-superpower relations (1947-1962)
(also known as the Triangular Diplomacy - at any time during their diplomacy together no nation equally benefitted from anything)
Containment - The US wanted to contain the spread of communism. This was proactive enough for the US and not aggressive enough to provoke another possible problem.
Sino-Soviet and Sino-US Relations - The Chinese wanted to have good relations with the US and Soviets, but felt that previous relations benefitted the other two nations more than the Chinese. If anything the Chinese were being walked all over.
Sino-Soviet Relations: The USSR and Chinese Communists had ideological differences in their establishment of Marxism. Stalin felt that Mao's interpretation of Marxism, using peasants as the basis for revolution couldn't be genuine revolutionary Marxism, which should've featured workers leading and urban-based class war. Mao also feared Mao as a rival for the leadership of the Communist world and didn't want the Cold War to spread to Asia. Mao also believed that Stalin wanted to have USSR dominant and Asia. Despite this, there was a Sino-Soviet Treaty of Alliance.
Sino-US - After the Korean War, there was conflict between the USA and the PRC. Around the 1970s, China wanted detente with the USA.
Detente (1967-1979) - detente was a period in time when the arms race was slowly coming to a halt because tensions were starting to "thaw." (not to be confused with the thawing period) The arms race was starting to come to a halt in and equal place between the Soviet Union and the US. (They had approximately the same number of arms).
Peaceful Co-existence - The US and USSR wanted to peacefully live together with authoritarian nations despite having different ideological views.
(1950s) US-Soviet Summits took place due to Eisenhower's willingness to negotiate and new attitudes towards the new leadership in the Soviet Union. The idea of a 'New Course' with the West, derived from George Malenkov, Nikita Khrushchev, & Nicolai Bulganin, was later continued by Khrushchev, who renamed it 'peaceful coexistence.' Peaceful Co-existence meant mutual acceptance of the continuity of capitalism and Communism without forcing the destruction of one another.
Leaders and Nations
The impact of Cold War tensions on two countries (including the US and USSR
Germany - Germany was divided into two parts, the East and the West, which eventually caused economic problems in East Germany, while West Germany flourished economically. When Germany was reunified West Germany had to help East Germany economically a lot.
China - China thought that the Cold War was a chance for the Soviet Union to overpower the US, which the US feared. This was due to ideology. The US believed that a capitalist and democratic system of ruling over the people was the most effective ideology, while China and the Soviet Union believed that they had the best ideology (communist ideals).
Cuba (Cuban Missile Crisis) - Castro seemed to befriend Khrushchev and got involved in the conflict (kind caught in the crossfire) between the US and Soviet Union. Castro allowed for the Soviet Union to build arms in Cuba, which caused the US to become fearful of a potential nuclear war as well as being decimated because Cuba's coast was just a few hundred miles away from that coast of that of the US.
The impact of two leaders, each chosen from a different region, on the course and development of the Cold War
Mao made many foreign policies in order to get the Soviets ahead of the US. Mao also wanted communism to be spread and thought that the USSR was not the brightest for openly placing missiles in Cuba and causing a conflict with a nation as strong as the US. Although the Chinese had reasons to attack the US due to bad past relations and problems China still engaged in relations with the US that benefitted them. Mao was always trying to see the bigger picture and therefore allied with the US in order to peacefully co-exist.
Europe (Stalin, Khrushchev)
Stalin - Stalin paved the way for an authoritarian way of rule in Russia, which led to the eventual rule of Khrushchev. Stalin wanted to become a world similar to the US and pave their own way in the world. After WWII Stalin really didn't want another Holocaust to happen. Stalin wanted to to dominate Eastern Europe.
Khrushchev - After the end of Stalin's rule, Khrushchev took over power. Khrushchev lead the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War. He aimed to live in harmony with the Western world, but contradicted those ideas when he instigated some powerful events. These events he was involved in would be the Cuban Missile Crisis and the construction of the Berlin Wall to name a few. He helped to both stabilize and threaten the relationship of the west and Russia.
Americas (Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Castro)
Truman (1945 - 1953) - Truman watched the Cold War begin and believed that the US needed a more aggressive and proactive approach in order to prevent and possibly contain the spread of communism, therefore leading to the creation of the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine was the United State's foreign policy that aided nations so that they could be independent nations or not align with communist beliefs (democracy over communism).
This policy was important because it "rebuilt" the Western political and economic system in order to counter the radical left." This caused problems to be blamed on the problem of the expansion of communism rather than with the United State's political system itself.
Eisenhower (1953 - 1961) - During the Cold War period Eisenhower wanted to take more action during the rising tensions in the Middle East, which caused for the Eisenhower Doctrine (created in order to keep communism out of the US in order to contain it and also turned the Middle East into a battle field) to be established.
Kennedy (1961 - 1963) - During the Cold War period Kennedy was just trying to get reelected for a second term and therefore did not do everything he did during this time for the people, but rather for their votes. When he removed missiles from Turkey, it was done in secret from the public in order to avoid public outrage.
Castro: Fidel Castro was the one of the leaders when taking over Cuba from the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. Castro nationalized all US owned businesses, which lead the end of the diplomatic relationship between the US and Cuba. This also caused the embargo that is still on Cuba. The US tried to invade Cuba because of this, and the battle was called the Bay of Pigs, but it went horribly wrong for the US.
Cold War Crises
Cold War crises case studies: detailed study of any two Cold War crises from different regions: examination and comparison of the causes, impact, and significance of the two crises
Europe (First and Second Berlin Crises)
(1958) After the Berlin Blockade, Berlin was divided under joint US-GB-French-Soviet occupation. West Berlin appeared to be a good example of capitalism & also had political freedom & an open lifestyle, which encouraged East Germans to escape from hardships of the East to prosperity and freedom of the West [through the open frontier in Berlin].
(Feb 1948) Germany was temporarily divided into four zones of occupation, administered by the Allied Control Council (ACC), (1949) Germany had been permanently divided into two separate states.
Americas (Cuban Missile Crisis) [Oct. 1962] - The US and USSR came extremely, extremely close to nuclear war with each other (tensions between the two were the highest at this point) due to Soviet missiles that got put in Cuba. Since it was so close to US shores it was perceived as a threat the US and therefore the US thought that immediate action should have been taken.
China's Views - Mao openly critiqued Khrushchev for backing down by removing the missiles from Cuba, openly placing missiles in Cuba (placement), and how it would negatively impact the struggle against US imperialism.