ARGUMENTS BASED ON OBSERVATION (HUME (criticises design arg., APTNESS OF…
ARGUMENTS BASED ON OBSERVATION
All things designed w/purpose.
regularity in universe.
AQUINAS' 5TH WAY
People direct- telos.
Things without mind have to be directed. Archer- bow & arrow- external intelligence- God.
they 'act for an end'.
God- 'supreme intelligence'.
Intelligent being exists to direct all things to pursue their goals.
Does everything have a purpose?
Purpose might be in our minds so qua purpose isn't sufficient.
If things only 'nearly always behave, according to their purpose'- how is it designed?
Cannot be sure of e.g. nettles- purpose. Can purpose change?
'achieve their end through design'.
PALEY'S DESIGN ARGUMENT
Stumble across watch
Design- intricate, detailed, couldn't of happened by chance.
'must be a watchmaker'.
Using inference- tell it not a rock- man made.
Complex & intricate- not completely perfect- still designer.
'must be a watchmaker'.
If 1 component is removed function/process won't work, e.g. mousetrap. Points to intelligent design.
Parts- NO function for natural selection tow work- have to be together- design.
'simply the purposeful arrangement of parts'.
criticises design arg.
APTNESS OF ANALOGY: choosing man-made analogy, Paley's already determined the result he wants .E.g. cabbage - intricate & has a purpose . BUT is natural- no maker.
EPICUREAN THESIS: if there was infinite time & huge finite particles they would undergo every possible combination- some unstable.
ARGUMENT FROM EFFECT TO CAUSE: evidence in the world shouldn't lead us to believing in all loving God - limitations, e.g. earthquakes.
Wrote his dialogues in conversation, Philo presents his criticisms.
DARWIN: evolution, natural selection- species develop rather than randomly. many species haven't survived - couldn't adapt. Seems a wasteful process if designed.
ANTHONY KENNY: makes God more evil than good.
MILL: flawed creator- morally flawed. Faulty design, e.g evil & volcanoes.
MODERN VERSIONS OF DESIGN ARGUMENT
F.R.Tennant & anthropic principle.
anthropic principle: universe exists for sake of humankind.
Must have been planned. 'Goldilocks effect', cannot be random.
World exactly right to create precise environment for evolution. If elements any diff for human life- impossible.
Assumes entire universe exists for tiny earth!
Where's evidence for design in remote galaxies?
SWINBURNE & SIMPLICITY
OCAM'S RAZOR: God planning universe simplest explanation.
Such regularity too incredible.
Is God really simple?
Simplest solution doesn't make it correct.
If choosing a theory, one w/ fewest assumptions- most likely correct.
AQUINAS' COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
1st 3 WAYS
1st: ARG FROM MOTION
Anything in motion must be put in motion by another, e.g. God- 1st mover.
Motion is reduction from potentiality to actuality.
Infinte regress cannot happen if there was not 1st motion- Unmoved Mover- God.
'whatever is in motion must be set in motion by another',
Natural world seems to be in motion, e.g. we respire due the oxygen release of plants.
2nd : ARG FROM CAUSALITY
Nothing can be caused itself, has to have a previous cause.
'to take away the cause is to take away the effect'.
3rd: ARG FROM NECESSITY & CONTINGENCY
All things are contingent- depending.
Nothing can come out of nothing
There must be a necessary existence...He cannot depend on anything
'there must exist something the existence of which is necessary'.
LEIBNIZ & PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON
God created universe for bets of all possible worlds.
Ridiculed by Voltaire: uses example to demonstrate foolishness of assuming explanations.
Explanation requiring no further explanation. Everything has an explanation & can be sufficiently explained.
Paul Tillich: God explains what exists- 'Ground of being'.
Russell & Copleston debate: Russel: 'universe is is just there and that is all', sufficient reason cannot be God. Copleston thinks Russel is avoiding the 'game of chess'