22.The Irish War of Independence ( ( Black and Tans supported by…
22.The Irish War of Independence
Sinn Féin led by Eaomonn de Valera and Michael Collins
promised they would give Ireland a republic if the people voted for them in the
election in 1918
SF; 76 seats.
HR party; 6 seats.
Unionists; 26 seats.
Once SF was elected, they set up the
in the Mansion House in Dublin.
British declared the Dáil illegal.
SF's military wing
said they would defend the Republic by force of arms.
War of Independence
Group of IRA men attacked an RIC patrol at
Soloheadbeg in Tipperary
Led by Dan Breen and Sean Treacy.
Lasted until Dec 1921; truce.
Men realised they could not defeat British by force alone; used
Organised IRA into groups of 40-80 men;
Lived in countryside relying on support of locals.
De Valera was leader of SF during war but spent most time in Lincoln Jail in UK / USA; raising money.
Man in charge of IRA; Cathal Brugha (Minister for Defence)
Real organiser; Michael Collins.
Collins born; Cork 1890.
Emigrated to London.
1909; Joined IRB.
1916; Returned to Ireland, captured and sent to Fongoch.
Released in Dec 1916, became a leader of SF.
Became Minister for Finance in the new Dáil, 1919.
Spent most of war training his
of 12 assassins.
Main aim of IRA was to destroy the RIC and British rule in Ireland.
by 1920, RIC only existed in major towns.
British sent former WWI soldiers to Ireland; Black and Tans.
Black and Tans supported by
All tried to break IRA during 1920.
IRA men; Liam Mellowes, Dan Breen, Tom Barry fought back.
; Barry's flying column killed 17 Auxiliaries in Cork.
Sunday 21 Nov 1920; Squad killed 12 spies and 2 auxilliaries.
Black and Tans went to Croke Park and killed 14 civillians.
Dick McKee, Peadar Clancy and a civilian, were killed in Dublin Castle.
30 people died altogether.
Became clear to IRA men could not win the war by fighting alone.
Only way to end was to
British also wanted to end the war; expensive.
; Irish delegation; Michael Collins, Arthur Griffith, Robert Barton went to London to negotiate.
British team; David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, Austen Chamberlain.
Totally independent Irish Republic.
End of partition (had become law with Government of Ireland Act, 1920).
British agreed to;
Partial independence for 26 counties.
; look at partition at a late time.
Irish agreed to sign the
Was signed on 6 Dec 1921.
Would be called the Irish Free State.
Own flag, army and currency.
Remain part of British Empire.
TDs would swear oath of allegiance to British King.
Britain would keep a Governor General in Dublin.
Britain would kep control of the Treaty Ports; Berehaven, Cobh, Lough Swilly.
Reaction to the Treaty
Most people, including Collins, was relieved and believed it to be a stepping stone.
Others, such as, De Valera, Dan Breen, Tom Barry, Cathal Brugha disagreed.
Vote was taken in Jan 1922
Collins, Griffith, WT Cosgrave sett about establishing the government.
De Valera, Liam Lynch saw treaty as a betrayal.
Anti-treaty became known as the
Pro-treaty joined the new
Free State Army
A group of Irregulars, led by Rory O'Connor, took over the Four Courts.
28 June 1922
, Collins ordered the Free State Army to attack the Irregulars in the Four Courts.
During the Civil War, both Griffith and Collins died.
Liam Lynch, leader of Irregulars died so de Valera convinced their new leader to stop the fighting.
Free State Army defeated the Irregulars and th Civil War ended in
A Republican During the War of Independence
Member of IRA from Tipp.
Irish voted for a republic in 1918 by supporting SF.
Joined IRA after an attack on the RIC in Soloheadbeg in Jan 1919 led by Dan Breen and Sean Treacy.
Also admire Padraig Pearse and James Connelly.
Member of a flying column; rely on locals.
Use guerilla warfare against Black and Tans and Auxilliaries.
Nov, match in Croke Park; Michael Hogan shot dead with 13 others; Bloody Sunday.
Collins had shot spies that morning; revenge.
He is Minister for Finance but her runs the war.
Biggest hero; De Valera. Only surviving commander of the Rising.
President of SF and very well respected.
Might be a truce but only if we get a total Republic.
Members of SF who were pro-treaty formed a new political party called
Cumann na nGaedheal
Led by WT cosgraveand Kevin O'Higgins.
Formed the first independent government of the new Irish Free State.