Jasmine K. Social Studies 12-15 (Ch. 12 Sect 1:The tensions that emerged…
Jasmine K. Social Studies 12-15
Ch. 12 Sect 1:The tensions that emerged after World War II led to a conflict that dominated U.S. foreign policy for decades.
The Soviet ruled the eastern part and the U.S. Britain and France controlled the western part. Truman believed Germany should be united by Stalin felt it would be a threat to the Soviet Union. This lead to a crisis in Berlin which led to the Cold War.
1949-NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed. It consisted of the US, Canada, and 10 Western European nations. They agreed to help any member that was attacked.
Stalin did not stick to the Yalta pledge. He set up Communist governments and maintained Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. There was iron curtain which cut off Eastern Europe from the West.
Ch 12 Sect. 2 Government efforts to address the economic, political, and social problems of the Cold War era changed the nation.
1947 National Security Act was passed to restructure the military and intelligence agencies. This law set up the CIA and the Nat. Security Council advised the president of foreign and military matters.
In 1948, Truman proposed the Fair Deal. He tried to end discrimination, asked for equal right. In 1949, he asked for an increase in minimum wage, more money for schools and government backed insurance.
Inflation resulted from an increase in consumer spending. People spent a lot of money so prices went up. This occurred after the war.
Ch. 12 Sect. 3 The Korean War tested how far the United States was willing to go to stop the spread of communism around the world.
Jan. 1951, Communists captured Seoul, South Korea's capital. However, control of the capital changed several times during this war.
July 1953: Cease fire agreement to end the Korean War was reached. A demilitarized zone was setup between North and South Korea. Neither side could clam victory. The US showed it was able to intervene. The lack of a clear victory lead to uncertainty about he nations' foreign policy.
At the end of WWII, Korea was controlled by US and the Soviet Union. A communist government controlled North Korea and a U.S. backed government controlled South Korea. Conflict began when North Korean troops invaded S. Korea in June 1950 to unite the two Koreas.
Ch. 12 Sect. 4 While Cold War tensions lingered in the background, the United States built a new kind of society after the war.
1950's: The US and Soviet were involved in an arms race. They competed for military supremacy and built many nuclear weapons. These posed a threat of destruction.
Economy in the US grew rapidly during the 1950's. Americans were earning more money and bought more consumer goods.
Over 900,000 US households owned a television set by 1949. TV's changed American life and was the main source of entertainment, news and information.
Advances in technology helped the economy grow. Business, industry and agriculture used new technologies and new methods of production. This led to more productivity.
Americans achieved a higher standard of living. There was more wealth, more products and types of products available and purchasing goods was easier due to credit cards, charge accounts and payment plans.
Nov. 1952 Pres. Eisenhower was elected. He had a middle of the road domestic policy and backed free enterprise. He also cut federal spending.
Ch. 13 Sect. 2: Kennedy's New Frontier and Johnson's Great Society made sweeping changes to American society.
Pres. Johnson created a set of programs called the "Great Society." He developed programs to help people below the poverty line including establishment of health care for low income people (Medicare and Medicaid), public housing programs and he supported civil rights.
Kennedy's New Frontier supported federal aid for education and the poor. He supported civil rights.
Jan. 20, 1961 Kennedy was sworn in as president. He won by 49.7 percent. He inspired the American people to action.
Ch. 13 Sect. 1: A movement to end decades of mistreatment of African Americans took hold during this era.
Dec. 1942: Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas ruled that separating school children by race went against the constitution. They argued that under segregation African American schools were not equal to white schools.
Core (Congress of Racial Equality) in Chicago was founded. They helped end segregation in many restaurants, theaters and other public places in Chicago, Detroit, Syracuse and a city in New York.
The Civil Rights movement was led by Dr. Martin Luther King. He organized protests, protected themselves against violent attacks and fought for equal rights.
Ch. 13 Sect. 4 The civil rights movement inspired women and groups such as Latinos, Native Americans, and disabled Americans to organize and push for equal rights.
1960's: unions were formed by migrant workers to fight for better wages. Cesar Chavez organized thousands of workers and formed the United Farm Workers (UFW).
1975: The Education for all Handicapped Children Act maintained that children with disabilities have the right to equal educational opportunities. Schools must meet the needs of children with disabilities.
1963: Equal Pay Act passed. This law kept employers from paying women less than men for the same work.
Ch. 13 Sect. 3: The successes of the civil rights movement could not prevent tragedy and the spread of less peaceful protests.
Spring 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King and the SCLC protest to end segregation in Birmingham, AL. Hundreds including Dr. King are arrested.
April 4, 1968: Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated. His murder triggered riots in over 100 cities. Fires were set near the White House.
May 4, 1961: A group of African Americans and white CORE members (Freedom Riders) left Washington DC for New Orleans to find out if officials were enforcing the ruling that bus stations should not be segregated. In Alabama, angry white people stoned and beat the Freedom Riders.
Ch. 14 Sect. 3: The Vietnam War caused strain within the United States and between the United States and other nations.
Oct. 1967: Over 50,000 people marched in Pentagon near Washington D.C. to protest the war in Vietnam. War supporters criticized the protesters for not showing patriotism.
Johnson was upset by the events in Vietnam and the antiwar movement. March 31, 1968 he announced to take a "new step toward peace." He also decided not to run for reelection as president.
The Vietnam War caused a divide between Americans. There were large protests. Antiwar protesters called Johnson and war supporters "killers" and supporters of the war called protesters "traitors"
Ch. 15 Sect. 1: President Nixon’s bold approach opened new doors in relations with China and the Soviet Union. Complicated problems, however, still troubled the United States in other parts of the world.
Nixon continued to fight against the spread of Communism. After Allende died, a new military dictatorship rose and US recognized the new dictatorship and provided foreign aid to Chile.
Nixon declares a policy of detente in order to relax international tensions. He waned to create a balance of power for a safer, better world.
Pres. Nixon faced many economic challenges. He tried to fight inflation, stimulate the economy but it created a budget deficit. Many economic problems continued during his presidency.
Ch. 14 Sect. 4: The Vietnam War took a heavy toll on America's soldiers and their families. It also changed the social and political climate in the United States
Richard Nixon launched a policy called "linkage" aimed at improving relations with the Soviet Union and China. These countries were the number one supplier of aid to North Vietnam. Kissenger hoped to get these nations to decrease their aid and help end the war.
Two campus protests end violently. The Kent State University tragedy involved students burning a military building on campus and a declaration of martial law. 4 students died and nine were wounded. At Jackson state university two students were shot and killed.
The Vietnam War left 1 million Vietnamese dead, 58,000 Americans dead and 3000,000 more wounded. The US spent $150 billion on the war. Thousands of soldiers were missing in action (MIA)
Ch. 14 Sect. 1: The fear of communism in the 1960s created tension around the world and greatly influenced America's foreign policy.
Kennedy aimed to fight Communism through foreign aid. He asked Congress to create the Peace Corps in 1961.
The flexible response was Kennedy's plan to fight guerrilla warfare. The plan helped nations fight Communist movements and used special military units such as the Green Berets Special Forces.
Oct. 22, 1962: Pres. Kennedy made a television appearance. He disclosed the buildup of Soviet missiles in Cuba. Kennedy responded with a blockade and warned that the US would consider a nuclear attack from Cuba against a nation in the W. Hemisphere as an assault on the US and we would attack the Soviet Union.
Ch. 14: Sect. 2: The United States entered Vietnam in an attempt to fight the spread of communism in Southeast Asia.
Aug. 1964: N.Vietnamese patrol boats attacked American ships near North Vietnam. Congress passed a resolution to allow the president to :take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S." The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed Johnson power to utilize American forces.
March 1965: Operation Rolling Thunder was a bombing campaign run by the US. Between 1965-1968 American plans dropped more bombs on North Vietnam than they dropped on the Axis powers during WWII.
Eisenhower warned against the "domino theory: where the countries in southeast Asia would fall like a row of dominoes. This theory helped to shape American policy over 20 years. The Eisenhower administration sent billions of dollars in aid.
Ch. 15 Sect 5: The presidencies of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush marked the shift from the twentieth century to the twenty-first century.
Pres. George W. Bush picked his cabinet to reflect the diversity of our country. He chose people from different career and ethic backgrounds. Retired army general Colin Powell was appointed Sec. of State and Donald Rumsfeld as secretary of defense.
Bush pushed for new military programs such as the National Missile Defense System which could shoot down incoming missiles. Missile defense was crucial because hostile nations were developing long range missiles.
Bush targeted domestic plans while he was in office such as cutting taxes, making improvements in education and Social Security and Medicare reform.
Ch. 15 Sect. 3: President Reagan helped bring about a conservative shift in the United States.
Reagan supported less government spending and lower taxes. He created a policy called "supply-side economics" to help everyone become more prosperous.
1987: Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. The treaty aimed to reduce the number of nuclear missiles in each country which decreased the threat of nuclear war.
Reagan helped to guide a new conservative approach to government which favors a small government that has a restricted reach into business and in the lives of people. Reagan stressed the importance of a return to traditional family values of family life, hard work, respect for law and patriotism.
Ch. 15 Sect. 4: The end of the Cold War reshaped the world in new ways and left the United States as the only superpower.
May 1989: Chinese students protested at Tiananmen Square calling for democracy. One month later, troops crushed the protest and killed several hundred protesters. Other world leaders along with Bush condemned the killings.
In 1990, Saddam Hussein, Iraq's ditator, sent his army Kuwait. Bush and a coalition come together to oppose Hussein. Jan. 1991, Operation Desert Storm started with missile attacks and bombing raids on Iraq. After six weeks the ground war began then after a few days Kuwait was free.
Aug. 1991, Communist officials and army generals organized a coup to overthrow the government. Gorbachev was arrested and soldiers took control of the Russian parliament building.
Ch. 15 Sect. 2:Nixon’s presidency and his plans to change the nature of government were overwhelmed by scandal. Presidents Ford and Carter attempted, with varying levels of success, to lead the United States through both domestic and foreign crises.
Camp David Accords: Pres. Carter brought together Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian president Anwar el-Sdat to Camp David, Maryland for a meeting. They found common ground after two weeks and signed a peace treaty in March 1979. This was the first time that Israel and an Arab nation reached a peace agreement.
Ford strived for detente with the Soviet Union and met with Brezhnev to talk about arms control. In 1975, Ford went to Finland to sign the Helsinki Accords with the Soviet Union and other nations pledging to respect the human rights of their citizens.
Watergate Scandal: June 17, 1972: Five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee Headquarters in Washington D.C. These men were arrested for theft and wiretapping. They were linked to Nixon and he later resigned.