causes of the English civil war
causes of the English civil war
In February 1642 parliament voted to throw Bishops out of the house of lords
Moderate mps thought about supporting charles beleiving if the church and bishops were abolished then the country would be in chaos
Some wanted to get rid of archbishop lauds reforms some wanted to get rid of Bishops and some just wanted to abolish the church of England completely
So over religion the country was divided
In parliament there were always debates and disagreements over religion
Irish rebellion and the nineteen propositions
Parliament agree but inly if you sign the nineteen propositions which state they control the army and even the education of your children
Charles completely disagreed and this made a civil war inevitable.
March 1642 and the Irish re in rebellion against Charles he needs an army so asks parliament for one.
Charles beleived in the divine right of kings=God has chosen him to rule and he should not get orders from anyone else/could do what they liked=upset parliament.
Although Charles and Archbishop Laud was Protestant They thought the extreme Protestants=Puritans were to extreme and vice versa. Three Puritans Prynne,Bastwick and Burton had there ears cut off for suggesting Laud was Catholic in pamphlets.
A big mistake was Charles' choice to marry the French Catholic Henrietta Maria offending many Protestants/Puritans. At the time Catholics were distrusted Spanish Armada/Gunpowder plot
After Charles and Laud imposed a slightly Catholi style prayer book in Scotland there were riots that lead to war called the Bishop's war-Scotland smashed the assembled English army demanding money from Charles to stop them invading England
Religion played a huge part in the civil war it was part of a Europe wide conflict between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism
in 1641 the Puritan members of parliament were calling for reforms to the church causing further divisions
Parliament passed the grand remonstrance which limited Charles' powers further and Charles fails to arrest the leading five members who supported this
Parliament wanted to see it's place in running the country made more secure+wanted to set right the religious and political problems that had arisen during personal rule=it reduced the kings ability to rule without parliament=he was forced to sign it.
Ship money and the star court are both declared illegeal.
During the Bishops war in 1940 the Scottish army smashed the English and in the treaty that stopped their advances it stated that for that to happen Charles had to pay them 850 pounds a day. To get this money he reopened parliament who said they would pay only if he executed archbishop Laud and his best soldier Strafford
The armies of the civil war
After the first battle of the civil war: the battle of Edgehill parlimentarian commanders found found their army was very inexperienced and almost got wiped out by the royalists.
They called on Oliver Cromwell to train a new set of troops to take on the kings men who set strict rules like their regular weapon and horse drills he also chose religious men
Also his rules about not abandoning and sedition led his new model army to descicive victories over the royalists
Puritans, the more militant Members of Parliament, merchants, the richer areas of the South and East fought for parliament
The royalists thought the parlimentarians were low born,inexperienced in judgement and lacked elegance
Catholics,most of the nobles,half of parliament and the poorer areas f the north and west fought for the king
The parlimentarians thought the royalists were suspiciously foreign, dissolute(overindulging in sensual pleasures) and prone to violance
As Charles was not getting the money he wanted he used forced loans to increase taxes and imprisoned those who refused to pay. parliament said he could do neither of these things in the petition of right and although Charles initially agreed he soon disregarded it
In 1929 Charles disregarded parliament and began his Personal Rule and needing a source of income used ship money from all counties not just the coast=made himself very unpopular.
Charles like his father led a very expensive lifestyle spending lots of money on food and musicians appalled the puritans who wanted to live a pure and simple life
At one point in the build up to the civil war Charles mortgaged the crown jewels.
Another key factor to the outbreak of war was Charles and his constant lack of money