The Rise of Modern China (Problems of China before 1949. China was weak,…
The Rise of Modern China
Problems of China before 1949. China was weak, unstable and divided
1800s: Foreign Invasion
1911: Qing Dynasty Overthrown
1916-1924: Warlords period (ruled by different warlords)
1928-1937: Nanking Decade (stability and living standards improved)
1937-1945 Second Sino Japanese War
1945-1949: Chinese Civil War
Social Problems after WW2
Severe urban rural disparity
Most of China's population were in poverty, except for people in major cities.
Poor living standards
Cities were destroyed, lack resources to rebuild
Corruption and tyranny of Nationalists, executed communists/opponents
Success of communists
The Nationalists lost a lot of troops in during Second Sino-Japanese War against Japan.
After WW2, strength of Nationalists were greatly reduced
Nationalists did not gain support
They were unpopular in most of the country
Their influence were only in the cities
US stopped supporting them.
Nationalists were corrupt
The officials were only concern of their wealth
Most money and resources were taken away
Middle class officials felt sick of it and switched sides to the communists.
Peasants sided with Communists
Communists had more control of China
The communists used villages and rural areas to blockade the cities
Most of the population were poor and supported the communists
Five Year Plan 1953-1957
Economic and industrial expansion plan based on Soviet model
China received help from Soviet Union
China sent its students to study in Soviet Union
10,000 Russian scientists and engineers enter the programme, over 700 infrastructure were built and 156 were built by Soviets.
Greatest increase production were steel and coal
China focused on developing heavy industries
China wanted to improve its transportation by building railways and highways
A lot of infrastructure were built
Steel production increase from 1.35 million metric tons in 1953 to 5.35 million metric tons in 1957
Free healthcare service
Sent people to villages to teach villagers and peasants how to read and write and communism.
New Marriage Law
Women encouraged to work in factories and villages
Land reform policies
All land confiscated from landlords
Landlords were arrested for trial
Peasants shared the lands
Collectives (1953 onwards)
Peasants work togther in collective farms to raise food production
Land owned by different peasants were combined to form one large collective
Land was jointly used by peasants and controlled by communists
Factory managers own their companies but had to follow production targets set by Communists Party
1958-1962 Great Leap Forward
To boost steel production and industrial development quicker so China can surpass UK and US within 15 years.
Every farmer was ordered to make steel using furnaces in their backyard.
Peasants form communes. Different communes will be responsible for mining coal or iron. Some teams will continue to work in farms
Impacts and Results
Bad quality of steel
Steel produced were weak and impure, not able to use
The Great Famine (1961-1962), killed 30 million
Ineffective farming methods. Mao hated sparrows and ordered peasants to kill sparrow. Without sparrow, the number of pests grew, causing poor harvest.
Most resources and manpower were used in steel production. Insufficient manpower to tender crops, crops decayed.
Inaccurate statistics of agriculture produce
The government collected the food from peasants despite there was low production.
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
Mao was concerned that China was not following the correct path of communist country.
Mao worries that traditional Chinese culture and traditional ruling class were ruining China. He believes by destroying tradition, China can advance.
Mao resigned as President of China in 1959, but he still remain chairperson of communists party. He encouraged young people to get rid of traditional elements of Chinese society.
Destruction of Four Olds
Opposed and denounced everything known as anti-revolutionary or a threat to communists.
Targeted teachers, professors, and other professionals were targeted and imprisoned, beaten to death, humiliated and had to take up manual labour jobs
Many traditional relics were destroyed because they were considered anti-revolutionary.
Communists leadrs such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were seen as not devoted enough in communism and were arrested. Mao viewed them as a threat.