Response to the Manchurian Crisis (1931-1941) (Why did the League not take…
Response to the Manchurian Crisis (1931-1941)
Japan's action in the Mukden incident was the first significant challenge by a major power to the new international system that had been set up in Europe after the First World War
This international system was centred by the ideal of "Collective Security"
It stated that it would take joint action to deal with aggression (a forceful action or procedure (such as an unprovoked attack) when intended to dominate or master).
How was it facilitated?
The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
The pact was signed in 1928 and signatory states promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts.
Instead, it called for peaceful settlements of disputes.
Japan signed this pact in 1928
Among with 14 other nations
However, it was signed overall by 62 nations
What actions did the League take in response to the Mukden incident?
Following the Mukden incident, China appealed to the League of Nations. This was an example of one member state attacking another
China hoped to invoke the principle of "collective security" and thus get action against Japan
As set out in
of the Covenant
However, the League acted cautiously. It held several meetings to discuss what action should be taken.
Who and where were these meetings attended?
These meetings were attended by the Japanese government, China and the USA (who, although not a member of the League but was invited to send representatives to the council)
JAPAN'S DECEPTION OF CO-OPERATION WHILE ARMY EVER-GROWS AND EXPANDS
While the Japanese government seemed to be co-operating with the League, the army continued to expand its influence over Manchuria in defiance of a request from the League that Japanese troops should withdraw to the railway zone
LEAGUE - FACT-FINDING COMMISSION LETS KWANGTUNG ARMY TO EXPAND
The League then decided to send a fact-finding commission led by LORD LYTTON to Manchuria
This commission took several months to complete its report on the situation
During this time, the Kwangtung Army was able to continue expanding throughout Manchuria.
In March 1932, the state of Manchuko was declared by Manchuria - a
under the control of Japan
THE JAPANESE CLAIMED THAT MANCHURIANS WERE NOW FREE OF CHINESE DOMINATION
ONE YEAR AFTER THE MUKDEN INCIDENT
One year after the Mukden incident, the Lytton's Commissions Report was published. It stated that:
Japan should give up and
was not an independent state and could not be recognised as such
Japan did in fact have
in Manchuria but the way they did it, by using the force of the army, was deemed as unjustified and unacceptable
Manchuria should become
What solutions did the commission suggest?
The Commission stressed that the problem of Manchuria could only be solved by a general improvement in
What did it recommend in relation to Sino-Japanese relations?
It recommended that, following Japan's withdrawal of troops
back to the railway zone
, the two countries should negotiate:
1. A non-aggression pact
2. a trade agreement
What facts did the recommendations ignore?
Such recommendations ignored the fact that Japan wanted Manchuria and was not prepared to compromise
2 more items...
Why did the League not take further action against Japan?
France felt that it had no real reason to fall out with Japan
As the colonial power in
, it had much to gain from a weakened power
Britain was also cautious in its response
Although there were some in the
ruling conservative party
who received that the principle of collective security should be upheld, it was unwilling to act when its own interests were NOT at stake
ALSO, it lacked the
means to resist Japan
Moreover, the FEAR of communism in both countries meant that Japan was viewed as an ally in containing Russia in the Far East
THE IMPACT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
In addition, both countries were
from the economic effects of the Great Depression which made them hesitant to spend resources on either economic or military actions
WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE LEAGUE'S FAILURE TO TAKE ACTION OVER MANCHURIA?
Japan continues to expand
The failure of the League's response to the Manchurian incident meant that Japan was able to continue its expansion
Influence on Mussolini in 1935
It may have contributed to Mussolini's decision to invade Abyssinia in 1935
The response of the League and Europe to events after 1932 (China again appealed to the League of Nations after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident)
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937
Who was involved in the conflict?
It was a conflict between Chinese and Japanese troops near the Marco Polo Bridge (outside Beijing)
The occupation of Manchuria and the declaring of the state Manchuko led to a growing anti-Japanese movement in China
By 1937 this movement had grown so strong that the Chinese Communists and nationalists agreed to end their civil war and form a united front against further Japanese aggression
JAPAN OCCUPIES FENGTAI, THE RAILWAY JUNCTION CLOSE TO THE MARCO POLO BRIDGE
July 7th 1937
On the night of July 7th, 1937, a small Japanese force near the Marco Polo Bridge demanded entry to a tiny town of Wanping in order to search for one of their soldiers
REFUSAL OF ENTRY LEADS TO SHOTS
The Chinese garrison in the town refused the Japanese entry
Shots started ot fire
JANUARY 28th INCIDENT (The Shanghai Incident)
on the 18th of January, five Japanese monks were beaten, ONE DIED and the rest were severely injured near a factory in Shanghai, after a few hours the group burnt down the factory
This caused an UPSURGE OF ANTI-JAPANESE AND ANTI-IMPERIAL PROTESTS IN THE CITY
China BOYCOTTED Japenese goods
DETERIORATION LEADS TO MILITARY CONCENTRATION
By January 27th, the Japanese military
ALL AROUND THE SHORELINE OF SHANGHAI
Japan issued an ultimatum, but bombed shanghai anyway with 3,000 troops attacking the northern train station