Causes of Major Depression and Bipolar Disorders (Biological ( (There are…
Causes of Major Depression and Bipolar Disorders
Twin studies- suggested that mood disorders is hereditary
There are 3 different genetic factors that cause depression
Cognitive and Psychomotor symptoms
Genetic contributions to depression is roughly 20% male and 40% female for depression
Low levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephren cause mood disorders
The Endocrine System
The "stress hypothesis" is the hyper-activity of the HPA axis that creates our stress hormones.
Stress and traumatic events are the most unique factors of all psychological disorders
between 20% and 50% of people who have suffered a stressful event develop a psychological disorder
Depression can develop in people after a life-changing event. Since every event is different psychologists no longer look at weather the event was good or bad and started to look into the context and meaning.
Study of life events
Stress and Bipolar Disorder
Stress events can cause both manic and depressive episodes
positive stressful life events cause mania
Learned Helplessness is becoming depressed and anxious when something bad happens and you decide to give up on life because you seem to think everything is your fault.
Negative cognitive styles
Arbitrary inference is when someone who is depressed only focuses on the negative things in a situation rather than the positive
Overgeneralization is when one thing negative happens so you automatically assume the worst is going to happen
Social and Cultural Dimensions
70% of the people with depression are women, this is consistent throughout all parts of the world.
Women also are more commonly to be diagnosed with panic disorder and anxiety and phobias as well
Women are at a disadvantage because they face more discriminations, abuse, poverty and they do not get as much respect as men do.
Women often blame themselves for being depressed where as men often ignore their feelings and do other things to take their mind away from it
Relationships and marriage play a large role in developing depression
Partners that have a significant other with depression or bipolar disorder often end in a breakup.
Social factors play a role in our depression
People who live on their own have an 80% risk higher than those that have roommates
People that have a friend to talk to also had a lower chance of becoming depressed or recovering from a depressive episode
Manic episodes on the other hand did not have the same effect as depressive episodes. Therefore the help of a friend did not decrease the recovery of a manic episode