The Suez Crisis 1947-1956 (1955 The Baghdad Pact- GB-Arab alliance against…
The Suez Crisis 1947-1956
Britain's interest in Egypt at the time
44% of shares in Suez
1936 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty= 10,000 GB troops in Suez zone
Air force bases in Iraq
GB controlled Aden and Cyprus
GB financed and officered Jordanian army
Background of Egypt in this period
1951- King Farouk renounces the Anglo-Egyptian treaty, proclaims himself the 'King of the Sudan'
1953- Anthony Eden negotiates a staged GB withdrawal from the Sudan
1954- GB agree to a 2 year phase to withdrawal from the Suez zone.
The right of re-occupation was agreed so they could come back in case of war.
From 1947, GB and Egyptian forces skirmished around the Suez zone.
Free access through the Suez Canal
To respect independence- Suez Canal becomes independent in 1968
1955 The Baghdad Pact- GB-Arab alliance against the USSR
Turkey, Pakistan, Iraq, Persia and GB
HOWEVER no Egypt. Nasser didn't want to join
Nasser forced Jordan to decline
Fear pact would undermine Egyptian power
Nasser signed alliance with Syria
He bought Czech Communist weapons
1956- Nasser makes himself leader of Egypt, wants Egypt to be leading Arab Nation
Wants to construct the Aswan High Damn. However, he needs funding
1902- GB built the Aswan Damn= 6 years to build and £2 million cost
1955- Nasser had the promise of funding from the US and USSR BUT..
1956- US don't fund damn because of communist connections with Nasser.
July 1956 Nasser nationalises Suez Canal
October 1956- Eden, only solution is to remove Nasser.
Protocol of Sevres= 29th of Oct-Israel attacks Egypt. 30th- GB and France demand a cease-fire and withdraw of troops in Suez. 31st- GB and France invade the canal zone to 'defend' it.
Egyptians put up resistance= Anglo-French force knocks out Egyptian Air Force.
Egyptians block the canal with sunken ships.
Britain first attempted a diplomatic solution
GB, France and Israel unite to take down Nasser. Israel because Nasser was hard-line against them.
Angers the British and French who had financial investment in Suez= 44% shares, 1968 agreement broken
Consequences of the Suez Crisis
US condemnation of the attack
Told NATO countries not to sell to GB or France= Oil supply crisis in Britain
USA prevented the IMF from financial aid to GB
GB couldn't act without US approval
Commonwealth condemned the attack
November 1956- GB ceasefire, withdrawal from canal
Anthony Eden resigns from PM
Currency crisis= Bank of England $45 million loss
Showed the world that imperialism would not be tolerated anymore.
Showed other GB colonies that GB was weak and the world wouldn't allow imperialism= US superpower= Nationalism