World Geography Semester Overview (Geography Basics (Geography: the…
World Geography Semester Overview
Geography: the study of the planet's surface and the processes that shape it.
Human Geography: the study of the various aspects of human life that create the distinctive landscapes and regions of the world
Physical Geography: the study of the Earth's physical processes
5 Themes of Geography
3) Movement: where are people moving to and why?
where and why people and goods are emigrating or immigrating around the world.
2) Place: what's it like when you get there?
Place gives some description or characteristic of the place
Geography: mountains, lakes, beaches
Lifestyle: educated population, religion, culture, GIS
4) Human Environmental Interaction: how do we impact the Earth and vice versa?
Includes pollution, mining, logging, industrialization, etc.
1) Location: where is it?
Absolute Location: the exact spot. Uses the global grid, latitude and longitude, and addresses
Latitude: the flat axis starting at the equator measuring north and south.
Longitude: the "standing" axis starting at the prime meridian and measures east and west.
Latitude and longitude can be broken down into degrees, minutes, and seconds.
GIS: stands for global information systems. It's a system where census data is embedded into maps to help understand locations better
GPS: stands for global positioning system. It's a system to help locate you through the use of 24 satellites orbiting the Earth. It helps give you directions from your current location.
Relative Location: the general area of a location. Uses cardinal and primary inter-cardinal directions.
Cardinal directions: the four prime directions. They are north, south, east, and west.
Primary inter-cardinal directions: The four directions in-between the cardinal directions. They are northwest, southwest, northeast, and southeast.
5) Region: spatial units that share similar characteristics
Two different types of characteristics
Physical (natural): climate, land forms, water, etc.
Human (cultural): language, religion, ethnicity, etc.
Types of regions
Formal: when geographers draw regions based of one or more measurable, shared traits that distinguish them from the surrounding area
Examples are states, countries, cities where they can officially defined by borders. More can be climate regions or based off of GIS statistics.
Functional: defined by a system of interactions where a center is connected to impacts that have several links to outside areas.
Perceptual: defined by people's feelings and attitudes about an area. They are frequently based on stereotypes.
Map Projects and Distortion
Every flat map has some sort of distortion such as the shape or size of oceans or continents.
Types of Maps
Mercator: the standard map seen most. This involves area distortion making some continents way larger than others when in reality, that's not the case.
Eckert: it's an equal-area map where the sizes of places are depicted accurately. However, they distort shape near the poles. This is shape distortion.
Goode's Homolosine: The continents are depicted accurately as well in this model, but it snips out parts of the oceans. The continents can stretch without distortion but it changes the oceans.
Climate vs Weather
Climate: the average pattern of weather over time for a given region.
Climograph: shows the monthly average precipitation and temperature for a given location.
The bars show precipitation levels in centimeters of inches
The line represents the temperature in celsius or fahrenheit
The country or region is in the northern hemisphere if it's warmer in the summer and colder in the winter.
A country or region is in the southern hemisphere when it's warmer in the winter and colder in the summer.
5 Factors that Affect Climate
1) Latitude: where as latitude increases, the average annual temperature decreases
2) Closeness to large Bodies of Water: where the large bodies of water moderate the temperature in the region or country nearby it. This causes cooler summers and warmer winters.
3) Orographic Effect: A weather pattern that usually involves places with mountains near large bodies of water. On the windward side of the mountain, wind is blown from the moving ocean currents. As the wind moves up the mountain, the water becomes humid as it reaches the top. This creates rain . On the leeway side, the wind blows down the mountain created a dry environment.
4) Elevation: the higher you go, the cooler the temperature.
5) Ocean currents: where the warmer the currents, the warmer the climate. This is the same with cooler currents and cooler climates.
Weather: the general condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place.
Demography: the study of patterns in human populations.
Average Population Density: if everybody in the world was spread out evenly on all of the world's total land per square mile.
Rate of Natural Increase: rate at which the population is growing. In other words, the birthrate and the mortality rate.
Birth Rate:the number of live births per thousand of population per year.
Life Expectancy: the average period that a person is expected to live.
Total Fertility Rate: the average number of children per woman in a lifetime.
Infant Mortality Rate:the number of deaths per 1000 life births,
Population Pyramid: a graph that shows the distribution of age groups divided by sex and lined up by age from youngest at the bottom to oldest at the top.
Subsistence economy: an economic system that relies on one's own capabilities for providing for themselves and family. It is a situation without buying or selling and is just one with people making their own goods and necessities.
Cash economy: an economic system that relies on currency and consumers to buy goods. Instead of creating ones necessities, one buys them with the currency printed by the government.
Demographic Transition Model: a graph that represents the population change over time. It shows how the birth and death rates affect population levels.
Used as a tool to predict change in countries through rates in population. It helps measures economies from less to high.
Stages of Demographic Transition Model
Stage 1: Low Growth Stage
This stage typically involves countries with very little development and responsibility taken by the government. This creates health crises and low regulation of the people's personal lives. Through the lack of attention, deaths and births skyrocket balancing out the population to be relatively slow in growth.
High Birth Rates: caused by little to no family planning. Also, since infant mortality rates tend to be higher due to the lack of health standards and systems, parents have an impulse to have more children to ensure security in a subsistence economy and a caretaker for when in old age.
High Death Rates: This is common in the oldest and youngest of the population where they are dependents and are not expected to be fully strong in health. They are the least immune to diseases, famine, poor diet and hygiene. These are a result of the little medical knowledge or support such as no vaccinations.
Low Growth: the fluctuations in both death and birth rates occur especially in war, diseases, famine, and drought. The population balances out with as much deaths as births in an underdeveloped country. This enables a small population with large burdens.
Population Pyramid: it would be wide at the base and thin at the top because there are lots of births and lots of deaths. The wide base is the large influx of babies while the thin top shows the very small amount of the old demographic still living as many old people die cutting away at the older age groups.
Stage 2: High Growth Stage
This stage involves countries partly developed yet still very far from reaching comfortable. Similar to stage 1, death rates are still very high but are slightly lower. The same goes for death rates.
High Birth Rates: the same reasons for stage one. However, since stage two countries are more commonly aligned with cash economies, the drive for more children is less influential as it is in stage one.
Falling Death Rates: in this stage, there is better health care. This means vaccinations, hospitals, doctors, and drugs. There are improvements in food production which all leads to lower infant mortality and lower death rates in general. The healthier population ensures longer lives.
Population pyramids: In lower deaths and still consistently high births, the population growth is exponential. The balanced out death and life situation is no more as these countries are forced to make more room for more people at a longer period of time. The population pyramid would like very similar to the one for stage 1 with a wide base and thin (but thicker than stage one) top.
Stage 3: Moderate Growth Stage
This stage involves countries that are mostly developed and are comfortable, but some conditions are either questionable or unfair compared to other parts of the region or country. There is development and a fairly successful economy but is not fully ensured for the whole country. Stage three includes falling birth rates and death rates
Falling Birth Rates: there is accessible and quality healthcare with family planning, contraceptives, abortions, and sterilization. This prevents more children as life raising them is expensive. Especially in urbanization where heavily populated cities cause parents to have smaller families simply due to the space available. These economies are purely cash and more children aren't needed. The older parents don't need more to ensure security when systems in the countries are put in place. There is increased mechanization and industrialization which decreases hard labor. Not only is the economic situation improving, but the oppurtunities for women have grown leaving them to have less time to care and have children.
Low Death Rates: It's the same reasons as stage two but in better conditions.
Population Pyramid: the population pyramid would be enormous at the base and relatively stable or medium length at the top. Since less children are dying and more people are living longer, the population in general is growing very quickly and lasting longer.
Stage 4: Low Growth Stage
Countries in stage 4 are highly developed and are considered powers on the world stage. They are economically sound and definitely based on cash instead of subsistence. These countries have advanced health care systems and a heavily involved government that regulates laws and people to manage the country in order.
Low Birth Rates: since health care is set and in a system, infant mortality and death rates in general or very low. This creates practically no need for more children. The fertility rates of these countries are below replacement which means the population is actually declining instead of growing because of the very comfortable lifestyle. There are even more opportunities for women. The reasons are exactly the same as stage three but even better.
Low Death Rates: Same reasons as stage three but better conditions.
Population pyramid: the population pyramid would be relatively the same all the way from bottom to top for both sexes. This means controlled birth rates and longer lifespans leading to a balanced population without lots of deaths.
Dependency Ratios: a calculation that helps calculate how big a country's burden will be when supporting its dependents either young or old.
Equations for calculating dependency
Total Dependancy: #(or %) of people 0-14+people 65+/ #(or%) of people 15-64
Young Dependency: #(or%) of people 0-14/ #(or%) of people 15-64
Old Dependency: #(or%) of people 65+ / #(or%) of people 15-64
Geopolitics: the interactions between countries for territory, resources, or influence.
Push factors: what causes people to leave
Pull factors: what causes people to come
Refugee:a person who has been forced to leave their country because of war, persecution, or famine.
Asylum: A country or place that welcomes refugees.
Sovereignty: the authority to make decisions over an area
Ethno-nationalism: the feeling of strong allegiance to a particular ethnicity.
Types of boundaries
Geometric political boundaries: boundaries drawn not based on cultural physical aspects.
Physical political boundaries: boundaries drawn based on territorial aspects.
Ocean political boundaries: boundaries drawn based on oceans
UNCLOS treaty (UN Convention on the Law of the Seas)
4) where a coastal state can claim up to 200 miles of territory beyond its shoreline as an "exclusive economic zone" over which that state has control of all economic resources (fishing, mining, oil, pollution)
5) outside the range of 200 miles is "international waters" where its owned by everyone in the world.
3) Contiguous zone: a band of water extending from the edge of territorial waters up to 24 miles from the coast.
where states can exert limited control to prevent or punish "infringements of its customs, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory"
6) the "median line principle" helps when countries' waters overlap. The countries will have to divide the waters up evenly among themselves.
2) other countries have the right of "innocent passage". Innocent passage is where countries are allowed to go through waters without any claims or intervention on sovereignty.
1) coastal states or countries that have complete sovereignty up to 12 miles from their shore. These are called territorial waters.
Shapes of States
Compact: where the distances from the center to any boundary is about the same.
Prorupted: an otherwise fairly compact state with a large projecting extension.
Perforated: a state that completely surrounds another country.
Elongated: a long thin state.
Fragmented: a state that's separated by a physical or human barrier.
Enclave: a state that's 2 kinds of completely surrounded.
separated by water
separated by other state
Exclave: a part of national territory separated from the main body of the country to which it belongs.
Economy: a system of production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services in a particular geographic region.
How to measure it?
Using levels of economic development.
Less developed and more developed.
How to measure levels of development?
Using economic sectors that differentiate the types used in a country and the GDP
Primary Sector: where a country's economic activities involves the harvesting of raw materials such as fishing, mining, and farming.
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Secondary Sector: where a country's economic activities involve turning raw materials into finished products of greater value such as factories and mining.
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Tertiary Sector:where a country's economic activities involve distributing materials or goods such as moving products around, having stores, or any service.
GDP (Gross Domestic Product): the total value of all goods and services produced in a location over a period of one year. It measures production.
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Through urbanization and industrialization, countries' ties to each other and across the world are becoming more essential. Developed and developing countries are reliant on their economies. As these countries advance, their economic sector may soon reach tertiary leading to a larger need to expand across borders. This growing reliance on each other is globalization.
Pros: Many goods from other countries allowing your population to access the world in easy ways. Good friendships can be built through trade deals or reliance on each other.
Cons: Heavy reliance can not always be the best where if the country is experiencing political turmoil or human rights charges, your country may become tied up to may have to make sacrifices to appease others in ensuring deals.