Geography (Different Geographic shapes of countries (Compact state: A…
Different Geographic shapes of countries
Compact state: A compact state is a country where the distance from the center does not change a lot. It is usually small and centralized. A good example is Poland.
Prorupted state: A prorated country has a long arm or extension which usually grants it access to a long coastline. A good example is Thailand with its long arm of land.
Perforated state: A perforated country is a country which completely surrounds another country, a good example is South Africa because it eats up Lesotho and Swaziland.
Elongated state: an Elongated state happens to be long and narrow. A good example would be Chile because of its very skinny nature.
Fragmented state: A fragmented state is separated by a physical border. They are usually split up by bodies of water or mountains. They are usually made up of many islands. Good examples would be The Philippines and Indonesia.
Enclave state: A country which is completely surrounded by another. Good examples would be the Vatican City and Lesotho.
Exclave states: Exclave states are parts of countries which are completely separated from the mainland. Alaska is one.
Demography: study of the human population
Population Density: How many people are located in one location at a given period of time.
Growth Rate: How fast the population of a given location is increasing at a given point of time.
Birth Rate: The rate in which people are being born.
Fertility Rate: How many children there are per mother.
Death Rate: The rate in which people are dying.
Life Expectancy: How long people are expected to live in a given location.
Dependency Ratio: The rate of working age people compared to the amount of dependents, which are children and the elderly.
Demographic Transition Model
Part 1 of the DTM is when both death rates and birth rates are high. As a result the population stays indifferent and stable.
Part 2 of the DTM is when death rates, especially among children become much lower due to advances in medicine. Birth rates stay high, this means rapid population growth.
Part 3 of the DTM is where birth rates gradually decrease due to improved living conditions. Population growth continues but at a lower rate.
Part 4 of the DTM is when both death rates and birth rates become low. This is because of improved quality of life and relative stability of the country.
Geopolitics: Issues that come from a country/countries physical location on the earth.
Push Factors: Push factors are reasons why someone would leave a country. Good examples would be war, a bad climate, a poor economy etc.
Refugee: A refugee is a person fleeing from their home country due to a life threatening situation such as war taking place in theirs.
Pull Factors: Pull factors are the opposite of Push factors. They are reasons that someone would go to a country. Good examples would be great healthcare, many job opportunities, a stable economy/government, relative peace etc.
Asylum: An asylum is a safe place for refugees, a developed country usually is the one to grant asylum to another one in need.
Sovereignty: Sovereignty is the power granted to a nation to govern itself. Therefore a sovereign nation is a country free from outside authority and influence.
Ethno-nationalism: Ethno-nationalism is unparalleled support for a given ethnic group.
Boundaries: borders/barriers placed around something.
Types of Boundaries
Geometric: These are boundaries drawn by human which usually don't change for the locations terrain.
Physical: These are natural borders which are not man made and usually exist because of territorial obstacles such as lakes and mountains.
Ocean: These are borders that are made or at the very least heavily influenced by the location of the ocean.
UNCLOS: The UNCLOS treaty is a treaty which had countries agree to surrender part of their claimed ocean territory and have them be separated into zones.
Territorial Waters: This is an idea where any ocean territory located 12 miles away from a countries landmass belongs to the given country.
Contiguous Zone: The zone going 24 miles off the coast where other countries can pass through if UNCLOS deems it fair.
Exclusive Economic Zone: A 200 mile zone off the coast where the given country has complete control of all resources.
International Waters: Part of the ocean further than 200 miles from any country are international waters where no country can claim sovereignty.
Economy: The practice of trading and buying goods.
Primary: The Primary sector of economics deal with mining and harvesting natural materials.
Secondary: The Secondary sector of economics deal with manufacturing and construction of consumer goods.
Tertiary: The Tertiary sector of economics consists of the buying and selling of produced consumer goods in marketplaces and stores.
Industrialization: Industrialization is a period of a countries life where the population stops producing for themselves and starts mass producing products meant for nationwide use.