Geography:The study of the planets surface and the processes that shape it…
Geography:The study of the planets surface and the processes that shape it.
Human Geography:The aspects of human life that create certain landscapes and regions of the world.
Physical Geography: The study of the earths physical processes.
5 Themes of Geography
Location: Where is is?
Absolute Location: Address of L attitude and Longitude
Longitude:E/W of the Prime Meridian
Latitude: N/S of the Equator.
Relative Location:Describing a location using other places land-forms or businesses
Place: What's it like when you get there? Mountains, Politics, Religion
Movement: pop patterns push and pull factors
Human Environmental Interaction:How people adapt themselves and change the land which they live on.
Formal: Formed by specific characteristics (ex: Where wealthy people live. )
Functional: A system of Interactions looks like a pie chart things come from a central point with a border
Perceptual:How people feel about a place.
5 factors that affect climate
L attitude: As it increases annual temp decreases
Closeness to a body of water: Cooler Summers + Warmer Winters
Oragraphic Effect: Windward: cool,moist Leeward: Warm and Dry
Ocean currents: warm currents=warm climate
Climate vs Weather: Weather is conditions in the atmosphere at a certain place and movement. Climate: patterns of weather over time.
GPS/ Global Positioning System :Satellites provide exact location.
GIS/ Geographic Information System: Data + Maps
Map Projections and Distortion: All maps are distorted because the glob is round and a map is flat.
Climograph: Shows preciptiation and temperature in certain places in certain months.
Demography: Study of population patterns and changes.
Population density: The amount of people per square mile if everyone was distributed evenly.
Rate of Natural Increase: Birthrate-Death rate/10=RONI
Birthrate: Number of live births per 1,000 of population a year.
Death rate: Number of deaths per 1,000 of pop a year.
Life expectancy: The average life a person is expected to live in a country.
Subsistence Economy: A family produces its own food, shelter, and clothes. Children share the work asset.
Total Fertility Rate: Average number of children a woman has
Infant Mortality Rate: The number of children under the age of one who die per 1,000
Demographic transition Model: A graph that shows what different statistics in a country are at at stages 1-4 of their development.
Population pyramids: A tool to show the amount of people in each gender and age group in a country.
Stage One: High birth and death rates (Angola)
Stage Two: pop increases the fastest death rate gets lower birth the same (Afganistan)
Stage three: birth rates start to decline (Brazil)
Stage Four: Fully developed (Australia)
Dependency Ratio: How much a country is burdened you want a low number Amount of pop over 65/ 15-64 times 100= DR
Geopolitics:The jokey among countries for territory land or resources
Push Factors: things that make people want to leave a country war, famine, disease religious prosecution
Pull Factors: Things that make people want to go to a country Jobs political safety
Sovereignty: The ability to make decisions over an area (complete control)
Refugee A person who has been forced to flee from their country to save their life
Asylum: Government protection of refugees
Ethnonationalism: The belief that one race should control a country
Types of Boundaries
UNCLOS treaty: The UN's treaty with almost all the countries about where ocean boundaries.
Contiguous Zone: Limited control 24 miles
Territorial waters: coastal states have complete sovereignty 12 miles from the shore
Exclusive Economic Zone: 200 miles all resources belong to a country laws don't count
International Waters: owned by everyone outside of 200 miles.
Median Line Principle: If two countries share ocean it is split down the middle
Types of States
Perforated State (South Africa)
The economy: A system of production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services in particular geographic region.
Industrialization: Moving towards the secondary sector and manufacturing moving to a cash economy
Secondary Sector: Manufacturing taking raw materials and making a finished product of greater value
Primary Sector: Economic activities involving harvesting raw materials (farming or fishing)
Tertiary Sector: Distribution of goods and services (truck drivers or stores)
More -developed Countries: Low Birth and death rates good education mostly on tertiary sector
Less-developed Countries: Higher birth and death rates remain more in primary or secondary sectors poor education systems
Human Development Index:measures income, life expectancy, education/ overall happiness closer to one more developed further away less developed
Gross Domestic Product: Total number of all goods and services produces in one year. GDP=C+I+G+NX C=consumer spending I= Business Investment G=Government Spending NX=Exports-imports
GDP per capita: The GDP divided by every person in that country
Geographic causes of inequality: Bad harbors, Tropical Climate, Lack of domesticate-able crops/animals, Deserts, Abundant or lack of natural resources, Oceans, wild rivers, being a giant continent
Globalization: The exchange of goods and services internationally.
Pros: Allows for cheaper prices gives people jobs to support their families
Cons: Exploits poor countries, causes bad conditions for workers