Who was responsible for the survival of Lutheranism? (The German Princes…
Who was responsible for the survival of Lutheranism?
The German Princes
Frederick the Wise
Ensured Charles would be elected as HRE so could offer Luther protection, as was owed money and gratitude.
Enabled him to have a platform at Wittenberg University to lecture his ideas and no censorship of his works or the printing press in general.
Reasons for helping Luther included:
Making his university famous.
Luther's attack on Tetzel, as his own indulgence sale would have been upstaged otherwise. Also rivals with Albert of Mainz for power.
Fair man with a sense of justice, so felt Luther deserved a fair hearing, especially as he wanted reform of the Church. Also, John the Steadfast and Spalatin were supporters.
John the Steadfast
Role model for the faith.
Converted as genuinely believed in the faith - would have been condemned as a heretic.
Also converted to pay off electors' debts using Church money.
Philip of Hesse
Used for military negotiation and had large noble status, despite the bigamy scandal of 1540.
Used the Church's money to donate to hospitals, however kept 41% of it for himself.
Wanted to enhance legal status as wouldn't need to share authority with the pope or bishops.
The Schmalkaldic League
Organised by Hesse and Steadfast - would use force to defend Lutheranism if necessary.
By 1540, nearly every Lutheran city/state were a part of the League and contributed 10,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry each.
Forcibly converted territories to Lutheranism during the 1540s.
Failure of negotiations
Diet of Speyer 1529
Revoked the Recess of Speyer and made the Edict of Worms compulsory. Also banned Zwinglianism and set death sentence for adult Baptists.
Marburg Colloquy: organised by Philip of Hesse to unite Zwinglians and Lutherans, but failed as there were arguments over doctrine.
Ferdinand distracted by the Ottoman army marching towards Vienna, however they were defeated by poor weather.
Diet of Speyer 1526
Two rivalling leagues: the League of Dessau (Catholic princes) and the League of Torgau (Lutheran princes).
Ferdinand opened the Diet and asked for the enforcement of the Edict of Worms, which was refused, as some princes had already converted, whilst Catholics lacked the means to apply force.
Recess of Speyer said that each prince could enforce their own faith and would be answerable to Charles and God. Needed alliance as the Ottomans had invaded Hungary.
Regensburg Colloquy 1541
Aimed to reconcile the two sides through moderates, such as Melanchthon and Contarini, to draft the Regensburg Book. Only 5/18 points were agreed upon, as divides about salvation could not be reconciled.
Actually called because Charles was short on funds for his Habsburg-Valois wars.
Luther and Pope Paul III could not compromise so the Colloquy failed anyway.
18 month reprieve offered to the Lutherans, however the Algiers campaign took over priorities.
The Schmalkaldic War 1546-47
Council of Trent of 1545 decided there was no way of reconciling the two faiths and that war was the only option.
Used the promise of electorship to gain the alliance of the Duke of Bavaria and Maurice of Saxony (despite being the son-in-law to Philip of Hesse.
On 23 April 1547, Charles defeated the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Muhlberg, capturing John Frederick of Saxony, who was later sentenced to death, and taking Philip of Hesse prisoner.
Habsburg-Valois wars based on Francis' loss in the election of 1519, conflicting inheritance claims, e.g. Burgundy, and that Francis felt encircled by Habsburg lands so that Charles would take France.
Treaty of Madrid after Francis was captured at the Battle of Pavia: desist from aggression, pay large ransom and renounce Burgundy.
Distracted from Lutheranism because...
Meant Francis prioritised over Lutherans due to defence of territories.
Francis made alliances with the Ottomans and together they attacked Charles' Italian territories.
Francis financed the Schmalkaldic League, as did his successor Henry II.
1520 revolt as subjects felt alienated, taxes and corruption were rife, and Charles was not in Spain.
Charles used the 1520s to build a bond with his Spanish subjects: he learned Castilian and worked with his parliament, and consulted a wide range of nobility, including aristocrats and lesser noblemen.
Important to reconcile with Spain because wanted Spanish monopoly on gold and silver in the New World and income to pay interest on Fugger's loans.
Meant that he was absent after the Diet of Worms so could not enforce the Edict of Worms, and that he could not suppress Lutheranism during the 1520s.
The Ottoman Empire
Ferdinand's rivalry with the puppet ruler of Hungary and the Ottomans drove Suleiman to launch the campaign against Austria in 1529, during the second Diet of Speyer.
Religious Truce of Nuremberg in 1532 and Diet of Augsburg in 1530 suggest that the Ottoman threat was greater than Lutheran threats.
Charles' Algiers campaign meant he ran out of money to capitalise the victory over the Schmalkaldic League.
Failure to capitalise victory and Peace of Augsburg
1548 Interim of Augsburg - rejected by both Catholic and Protestant princes as was a diluted version of the Catholic faith.
Augsburg Agreement of 1551 stated that the position of HRE would alternate between the two branches of the Habsburg family. Electors' rights ignored and outrage ensued, so was retracted.
Treaty of Chambord 1552 - between Henry II and revived Schmalkaldic League. Invaded Metz and other states to distract from league. Resulted in Peace of Passau - stated right of worship for Lutherans and releases Hesse.
Charles departed for the Netherlands in 1553 as failed to retake Metz from a French force of only 6,000.
Peace of Augsburg 1555: Lutheranism achieved legal status in the Empire, meaning princes could choose the faith for their states and subjects were free to emigrate in disagreement as long as their titles were left behind.
Sack of Rome 1527
Imperial army sacked Rome and forced Clement to flee from St Peter's. Taken prisoner.
Ensured cooperation between the papacy and Charles. Some took it as a sign to reform.
Pope Paul III
Among the Oratory of Divine Love members, there were two views on reform, the spirituali and the zelanti. The spirituali were moderates, such as Contarini, who were willing to compromise with the Lutherans and had sympathies for St Augustine; the zelanti were hardliners who wanted reform of abuse only and did not want compromise.
Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia 1537
Spirituali suggesting ways in which to reform Rome itself, including abolishing simony.
Paul suppressed this as did not want to lose any more income.
After rejecting the Regensburg Book of 1541, Paul ended attempts to reconcile with the Lutherans and took the zelanti approach.
The Council of Trent 1545
Wanted sharp definition of Catholic doctrine and heretics.
Made the Tridentine Decrees - defined and detailed, heresy = those who did not precisely conform, i.e. Lutherans, moderate Catholics and Protestants.