GEOGRAPHY FINAL (ECONOMICS (The Sectors (Primary Sector: economic activity…
Economy definition: A system of production, consumption and distribution of goods and services in a particular geographic region.
Industrialization: the development of industries in a certain country/region
Primary Sector: economic activity that centers around the harvesting of raw materials. (farming, mining, ect.)
Secondary Sector: Manufacturing, or activities that focuses on turning raw materials in finished products of greater value.
Tertiary Sector: Activities that distribute materials or goods. Also any types of services.
More-Developed Countries: Countries that have stable economies and good qualities of life.
Less-Developed Countries: Countries that aren't super developed, i.e: third world countries.
Human Development Index (HDI): Measures income, life expectancy and education levels,
GDP: The total value of all goods and services produced in a location over the period of one year.
GDP Formula: Consumer spending + Investment + Government spending + (net exports - net imports) = GDP
GDP per Capita: GDP divided by total population of that country.
Globalization: where countries start developing on a global scale.
Pros: creates jobs, causes industrialization, opportunity to develop, shared ideas, technology.
Cons: "race to the bottom" = bad working conditions, little regard for the environment, could spread diseases.
Push/Pull Factors: Things that draw people to an area or make them leave.
Sovereignty: Supreme power or authority over a country
Refugee: A person who has left their home because of persecution or disaster.
Asylum: Protection granted to a refugee
Ethnonationalism: the support/advocacy of a certain ethnic group generally regarding national independence.
UNCLOS Treaty: treaty that the UN made about how much of a claim a country can have on the seas surrounding it.
Territorial Waters: Up to 12 miles off the coast of a country, that country has complete sovereignty.
Contiguous zone: water 12-24 miles off a coast. Here countries have some control: they can regulate immigration, environmental threats, ect.
Exclusive economic zone: any economic assets 200 miles from the coast belong to that country, but in this zone no laws can be enforced, they only can benefit from the resources.
International waters: If there is no land within 200 miles, those areas of ocean are for everyone, everyone owns it essentially.
Median-line principle: if there's not 400 miles or more between two countries, they split the ocean between them down the middle.
5 themes of geography
location: latitude and longitude
Place: what's it like when you get there?
Region: spatial criteria based either on physical or political boundaries
Movement: movement of humans and how it's influenced by geography
Human/environmental interaction: how humans and their surroundings interact.
Geometric Boundaries: geometric, artificial borders like Colorado's borders.
Physical/Natural boundaries: Borders that are based off natural features like mountains/rivers.
Ocean boundaries: see UNCLOS
Compact State: has compact boundaries,similar distance from middles to outsides.
Prorupted State: An otherwise compact state with one projecting extension
Perforated State: A state that completely surrounds another one.
Elongated State: A long, thin country
Fragmented State: A state that is fragmented or separated by a human or physical barrier.
Enclave State: A state that is completely surrounded by another one
Exclave State: A part of a national territory, goes hand in hand with a fragmented state.
absolute location: lat/long
latitude: lines parallel to the equator
longitude: lines parallel to the prime meridian
relative location: location of something in relation to something else (north of ....)
GPS: a way to navigate w/satellites
GIS: a way to integrate different types of information onto a map.
Mapping: When making a map, it's impossible to accurately project the round earth onto a flat map, so the countries are distorted
Climate def: the general typical weather of a region
Weather: Unique conditions from day to day
5 factors that affect climate:
Latitude: the higher the latitude, the lower the average temperatures
Closeness to bodies of water: large bodies of water moderate the temperatures, cooler summers warmer winters.
Orographic effect: happens near a warm body of water with coastal mountains. Coastal side is tropical and cool, other side is dry and warm.
Elevation: for every 1,000 feet the weather gets three degrees cooler on average.
Ocean Currents: For example: the gulf stream bring much warmer weather
rate of natural increase: birth rate minus death rate
birth rate: number of births per 1,000 ppl
death rate: number of deaths per 1,000 ppl
average lifespan of a group of ppl
total fertility rate: number of children born to every 1,000 fertile women
Infant mortality rate: Number of babies under age of 1 out of 1,000 that die
replacement rate: 2.1
Population density: the amount of people per square mile/km
Demographic Transition Models
Stage 1: Little to no growth, high birth & death rates, like most of history
Stage 2: "population explosion". death rates decline but birth rates remain high. Think industrial revolution
Stage 3: Moderate growth rate, declining birthrate but population still increasing slowly.
Stage 4: Birth and Death rates stay low. popluation levels off and even begins to decrease, when birth rate falls below replacement rate
(# or % of people >14 and <65)
(# or % of people 15-64)
Causes of geographic inequality: natural resources, climate, colonization, poor access to potential trade routes, isolation, colonization, tropical climate, bad government,