Cause and effect Matt symonds SLE251 R. (How do we establish cause? (are…
Cause and effect
Matt symonds SLE251 R.
How do we establish cause?
are sometimes not possible, ethics, and other real world limitations.
Control for confounding effects
2, Use "Natural experiments"
3, Manipulative experiments
Can we infer causality without experiments?
a group of tests/ that provide a better evidence when looked at together than separately
Strength of effect
Consistency of effect
Specificity of effect
Timing of effect
Gradient of effect
Plausibility of effect (logic)
Removal of putative cause*
Coherence of effect
Compilation of results from separate independent studies
BIOLOGICAL EFFECT IS NOT = TO STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
P- VALUE CAN'T ALWAYS BE TRUSTED, THINK ABOUT THE RESULTS FROM A MORE LOGICAL STAND POINT
Having direct evidence is not always possible but sometimes indirect evidence can be helpful