Henry VIIIs Foreign Policy
Henry VIIIs Foreign Policy
Henry - Failed / Dupe?
Treaty of London was fragile - Maximillian dying broke it. England couldn't stop Francis and Charles competing for the imperial crown
Henry wrote to Charles after Pavia, asking him for help to take down the French and for Henry to gain the crown - Charles refused
No significant foreign marriages to England
Break with Rome left England isolated
Henry failed to capitalise in Scotland
Suffolk let down in France - Duke of Bourbons attack failed, and Charles was preoccupied in Italy - so Suffolk's three pronged plan on Paris failed
Boulogne was captured in 1544 but this was the only success of this war after Charles abandoned him after the Treaty of Crepy in 1544
Henry was abandoned in 1512 by Ferdinand of Aragon, he used England as a distraction as he took Navarre for himself - and Englands troops were left disgraced
Failures of Wolsey?
Charles V and Francis I dominate over England
Response to Hapsburg Valois war is a disaster - Suffolk is abandoned in his attack on Paris
Battle of Pavia and Sack of Rome - irrelevant pressure from England and France
Trade Embargo on HRE is very weak and ends in uproar in SE SW and East Anglia, plus unemployment, imprisonment of English merchants and poor harvests combining to increase poverty
Isolated England - Cambrai
Henry - Glorious Hero?
Tournai and Therouanne in 1513
Treaty of London - rational peacemaking, with Wolsey becoming papal legate
Break with Rome - brave?
Field of Cloth of Gold
Battle of Flodden 1513 and Solway Moss 1542
Where was Henry duped?
Noyon 1516 - Charles gave Francis land
Madrid 1526 - Charles gained land off Francis
Cambrai 1529 - Charles gained land off Francis
Nice 1538 - alliance and territory disputes put aside
Crepy 1544 - both made peace and marriage was promised to Charles
Where is Wolsey successful?
Phase 2 of the French war - gains 30,000 men for the king, plus victories and glory
Treaty of London
Treaty of More
Treaty of Amiens and League of Cognac
Phases of Foreign Policy
Successes - France, Treaty of London and battle of Flodden
1520 mixed - Hapsburg Valois war, second French war, alliance with France but inability to challenge Charles, Pavia, Trade Embargo
1530s - Schmalkadeln League and Break with Rome
1540s missed opportunities - Solway Moss not capitalised on, Boulogne the only french success
Did Henry achieve his objectives?
Collected pension off the French
Gained honour and glory through Flodden, Solway Moss, Boulogne and Tournai / Therouanne. Also suffered losses and dupes
Dynasty secured through Edward - his only son
Influential in Europe - Treaty of London, Field of Cloth of Gold and Wolsey diplomacy - but many failed attempts to control Charles
Flodden and French success - a time of peace after this? Treaty of London and Field of Cloth of Gold
Hapsburg Valois War - ending of the peace. Henry to exploit the tension in Eruope and gain alliances? Wolsey meets both French and the HRE, and sides with the HRE, but is constantly let down
Battle of Pavia and Sack of Rome - Charles's dominance and beginning of relations with French and Pope
Successful Military Victories
Spurs 1513, Therouanne and Tournai 1513, Flodden 1513
Solway Moss 1542
Capture of Boulogne 1544
Invaded Naples twice in 1524 and 28
Milan and Biocca 1522
30 km of Paris 1544
Tunis from the Ottomans 1535
Muhlberg 1547 over German Protestants
Were the failures Henry's fault?
He was distracted by desire for glory
Isolation through his desire for annulment
Wolsey was pushed so hard by his urgency and unachievable goals
Had successes in France, Scotland and diplomacy?
Charles and his power - king of Spain and HRE! Had taken the pope so Henry couldn't get an annulment
Francis was powerful too - had more money and men than Henry