Learning & Cognitive Approaches (Cognitive Theory Approach:Conscious…
Learning & Cognitive Approaches
: all behaviour is learned. This is a contrary point compared to the one maid by Psychoanalyst that stated that behaviour was unconsciously driven.
It all started with
and his conditional stimules. Psychopatoliges can be unlearn (they share this with Psychoanalis)
Continued by Watson and his "
denies that people are purposeful, we aim to produce pleasurable events and avoid pain and learn the best responses to make that happen
reciprocal determinism: the individual respond two both inner and outer forces (diagram triangles ). Influential in the transition from behaviourism to cognitive psychology.
experiment show that when children see someone acting violently you tend to imitate them. If not they don't.
: one own percieved ability to achieve something.
Walter Mischel (1968)
: shift from general considerations towards individual differences in learning. trying to finding how learning varied across different personalities he got into the person-situation debate.
He found that there's little evindence that the same individual will behave in the same way in diffewrent situations
This is not the end of personality theory but the it stresses the idea considering the place and trait.
Cognitive Theory Approach
:Conscious thought and perceptions of the environment matter for your personality. Internal motivations and thought. Emphasises creativity and change (active). We are the way we thought and the way we self-regulate our behaviour and thought.
personal constructs. individuals act as scientist. He saw us all interpreting world events according to our own life histories. Personality is how we construct the world.
Concepts in Kelly's theory: super-ordinate construct
: refers to the construct we are using to understand any given situation. Discriminations that we make when we percieve events. Not necessarily expressible in
Range of Convenience
- Cuiltural DIfferences in Cognition.
Attending to the entire field
Making little use of categories
e.g., East Asians
Attending to the object
Focusing on categories one belongs to
(1919): not in class but mentioned a lot in Humanistic Approach. Rational Irrational belief system.