7 Characteristics of living things (Chemicals of Life (Proteins (Made up…
7 Characteristics of living things
Number of cells
More than one
The type of cells are divided into Kingdom and Domain based on cells and food production
Domains (broadest category)
Bacteria (prokaryote = no nucleus)
Kingdom: Eubacteria = "normal bacteria" like strep
Archea (prokaryote = no nucleus)
Kingdom: Archabacteria = live in extreme conditions and are the oldest type
Complicated: unicellular or multicellular
protists: "junk drawer" unicellular and multicellular
fungi: mostly multicellular
plants: multicellular, autotrophs, and no cell wall
animals: multicellular, move, and have a cell wall
Obtain and use energy
Plants go through photosynthesis in the chloroplast: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2.
All organisms go through cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)
The two equations are inverses of each other, it is a constant cycle
The oxygen the cells get through cellular respiration turns into carbon dioxide, as the blood moves through your body, heart and lungs, through the circulatory and respiratory systems for more complex cells.
For more basic cells, the transfer of the gases comes through diffusion: where something moves from a high concentration gradient to the low one.
All diffusion is passive transport, which means it doesn't use energy, except for facilitated diffusion which does require energy, although it is only to move large particles.
Grow and Develop
All cells grow and develop as they get older. Some of their growth could be their splitting up into smaller parts like what causes cancer.
Asexual: offspring that is identical to one of the parents
Sexual: parents combine genetic information to create a new baby
The chromosomes (which contain DNA) split to let this occur
The baby gets different alleles through this process
Fitness: If an animal can survive in its environment and produce fertile offspring.
Therefore, an animal is not fit if it can not go through
Response to Stimuli and Evolution: A journey with the Sunflower
Let's pretend, many years ago, that sunflowers did not lean towards the sun. Then a sunflower had a change when the DNA were being copied and a mistake was made that made that specific sunflower lean towards the sun. That would be considered a mutation. That sunflower got the most sun out of all of the sunflowers and it become an adaptation as it was a benefit to the sunflower. Because the sunflower can reproduce and can survive in the fields he is fit and can be chosen through natural selection. As it fertilizes other sunflowers and creates new plants the adaptation is passed along and sunflowers evolve over time to lean towards the sun
Now pretend it the sun is moving across the sky. The sunflower now moves to follow it, and this is a response to stimuli. The stimuli is the sun moving and the response is to follow the sun.
All plants in general have gone under a series of evolutionary changes
Chemicals of Life
Made up of amino acids connected by peptide bonds who are made in protein synthesis
They do most of the work in the cell
energy source and makes up the cell wall
includes sugar, starch, and cellulose
gives you energy/ATP
2 types: DNA and RNA
genetic information for living things
instructions for living things
messenger of the DNA