The Cold War Divides the World (Confrontations in the Middle East (The US…
The Cold War Divides the World
Fighting for the Third World
Cold War Strategies
The U.S, the Soviet Union, and in some cases china, used many techniques to gain influence to the 3rd world
They backed wars of revolution, liberation, or counterrevolution
U.S and Soviet agencies like the CIA and KGB engaged in various secret activities.
The U.S built schools, gave military aid, set up programs to fight poverty, and more.
The Soviets also offered Military and technical assistance
Why was it hard for countries to remain unaligned?
If these third world countries are unaligned they won't receive any future assistance from the country they are aligned with so they could start to struggle.
Some of these activities included assassination
Should the U.S sometimes engage in assassination?
Yes because it can be used to get a point across to other countries to show the U.S will do anything to get more people on their side.
The Third World and U.S.-Soviet Competition
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Other developing nations needed assistance
These nations were important players in the cold war competition between the U.S, Soviet Union, and China.
Not all 3rd world countries wanted to be apart of the cold war
Indonesia struggled to stay uninvolved and India vowed to stay neutral
In 1955 there was a Bandung conference that included Asian and African leaders.
They met to form a 3rd force of independent countries also known as
Third World Countries in the Cold War
Third World Nations
The third world nations were located in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
These nations were economically poor and politically unstable and lacked technology and education
This was largely due to a long history of colonialism
They had two political and economic systems to choose from.
These included Soviet-style communism, U.S.-style free-market democracy.
Confrontations in the Middle East
The US Supports Secular Rule
The Shah Westernized his country with the help of the US.
Millions of Iranians lived in extreme poverty even though Iran's capital contained skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories.
Iran's conservative Muslim leader, ayatollahs, opposed Western influences and was weaken.
Iranians rioted in every major city in late 1978.
The shah fled to Iran in 1979 so Khomeini returned to establish an Islamic state.
Khomeini's Anti-US Policies
Khomeini had hatred for the US because of their support of for the shah.
In 1979, young Islamic revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran. Taking more than 60 Americans hostage and demanded the United States force the shah to face trial.
Most hostages remained prisoners for 444 days before being released in 1981.
Instead of unifying the Muslims, Khomeini encouraged radicals to overthrow their secular governments.
Tension between Iraq and Iran causing a war in 1980.
The United States secretly gave aid to both sides.
The Soviet Union had supported Iraq.
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Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
Oil industry wealth fueled a growing clash between traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism.
After WW11, Iran's leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, embraced Western Government
Iran nationalist resents these foreign alliances.
They united under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq and nationalized a British-owned oil company.
In 1953 forced the shah to flee.
The US feared Iran may turn to the Soviet Union for support so the US helped restore the shah.
About Muhammed Mossadeq
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
Afghanistan maintained its independence from both the Soviet Union and the United States.
1979 the Soviet invade.
The Soviets became stuck and did not have happen what they expected.
Supplied with American weapons, the Afgan rebels, called mujahideen, continued to fight
US considered the Soviet invasion as a threat.
President Jimmy Carter stopped U.S. grain shipments to the Soviet Union and ordered a U.S. boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
In the 1980s, a new Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev, acknowledged the war’s devastating costs and withdrew all Soviet troops by 1989.
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Confrontations in Latin America
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, who had U.S. support
Cuban resentment led to a popular revolution, which overthrew Batista and a man named Fidel Castro led it.
Although Castro improved the economy, he was harsh because he suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press
Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba and Castro then turned to the Soviets for economic and military aid
The CIA invaded Cuba, landing at the Bay of Pigs
Castro’s forces easily defeated the invaders, humiliating the United States
How did the U.S policy toward Cuba backfire? Answer: Cuban resentment led to a revolution that was also against the U.S
Aftermath of WWII
Latin America needed aid from both superpowers since a gap between the rich and the poor grew after WWII.
American businesses backed leaders who protected U.S. interests but who also often oppressed their people
After the war, communism and nationalistic feelings inspired revolutionary movements
In response, the United States provided military and economic assistance to anti-Communist dictators
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was convinced that the United States would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America
Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba and an American spy plane discovered the sites
The missiles were so close to the U.S. mainland so Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of Cuba
Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba
Castro backed Communist revolutions in Latin
America and Africa
Soviet aid to Cuba stopped and this hurt the Cuban economy
Castro loosened state control of Cuba’s economy and sought better relations with other countries
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What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States? Answer: It showed that the U.S needed to be aware of nuclear war and build their army to defend themselves.
Civil War in Nicaragua
The U.S funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza and his family
Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza’s son
Both the United States and the Soviet Union initially gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega
The Sandinistas, however, gave assistance to other Marxist rebels in nearby El Salvador.
The United States supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist forces called the Contras or contrarevolucionarios
The civil war in Nicaragua hurt the economy so President Ortega agreed to hold free elections, the first in the nation’s history
Violeta Chamorro, a reform candidate, defeated him but Ortega won the election in 2006 and returned to power
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About Anastasio Somoza