The Cold War Divides the World
The Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations in Latin America
After World War II, rapid industrialization, population growth, and a lingering gap between the rich and the poor led Latin american nations to seek aid from both superpowers.
At the same time, many of these countries alternated between short-lived democracy and harsh military rule.
As described in Chapter 28, U.S. involvement in Latin America began long before World War II.
American businesses backed leaders who protected U.S. interests but who also often oppressed their people.
After the war, communism and nationalistic feelings inspired revolutionary movements.
These found enthusiastic Soviet support.
In response, the United States provided military and economic assistance to anti-Communist dictators.
What inspired revolutionary movements?
How was the U.S. involved in the Cold War?
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
In the 1950s, Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, who had U.S. support.
Cuban resentment led to a popular revolution, which overthrew Batista in January 1959.
A young lawyer named Fidel Castro led that revolution.
At first, many people praised Castro for brining social reforms to Cuba and improving the economy.
Yet Castro was a harsh dictator.
He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press.
When Castro nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over U.S. owned sugar mills and refineries.
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Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev that the United States would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America.
So, in July 1962, Khruschchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba.
In October, an American spy plane discovered the sites.
President John F. Kennedy declared that missiles so close to the U.S. mainland were a threat.
He demanded their removal and also announced a naval blockade of Cuba.
Castro protested his country's being used as a pawn in the Cold War.
But Castro and Cuba were deeply involved.
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Civil War in Nicaragua
Just as the United States had supported Batista in Cuba, it had funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza and his family since 1933.
In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza's son.
both the United States and the soviet Union initially gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega.
The Sandinistas, however, gave assistance to other Marxist rebels in nearby El Salvador.
To help the El Salvadoran government fight those rebels, the United States supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist force called the Contras or contrarevolucionarios.
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted more than a decade and seriously weakened the country's economy.
In 1990, President Ortega agreed to hold free elections, the first in the nation's history.
Violeta Chamorro, a reform candidate, defeated him.
The Sandinistas were also defeated in elctions in 1996 and 2001.
However, Ortega won the election in 2006 and returned to power.
Why did they fund the dictatorship?
The U.S. had funded the Nicaragua dictatorship with his family since 1933.
Did their economy ever recover?
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted over a decade and weakened their economy.
Fighting for the Third World
Third world nations were located in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
Economically poor and politically unstable
Largely due to to a long history of colonialism
Each needed a political and economic system around which to build its society
Cold War Strategies
The U.S, the Soviet Union, and sometimes China, used a variety of techniques to gain influence in the Third World
The U.S and Soviet Union had intelligent agencies
The CIA and KGB
They engaged in various covert, or secret, activities
These ranged from spying to assassination attempts
Should the US sometimes engage in assassination attempts?
Yes, the U.S should when it is needed. For example, assassinating a dictator is often considered comparable to Hitler and Stalin. Mistakes and collateral damage from assassinations are worth it because there will probably always be collateral damage involved in any assassination policy.
The United States also gave military aid, built schools, set up programs to combat poverty, and sent volunteer workers to many developing nations
The Soviets offered military and technical assistance, mainly to India and Egypt
CIA vs. KGB
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Other developing nations also needed assistance
These nations became important players in the Cold War competition between the U.S, the Soviet Union, and China.
Not all countries wished to play a role in the Cold War.
India vowed to remain neutral
Indonesia, a populous island nation in Southeast Asia, also struggles to stay uninvolved
In 1955, Indonesia hosted many leaders from Asia and Africa at the Bandung Conference
The Bandung Conference
"Third Force" was formed - it was also known as the nonaligned nations
Why was it hard for countries to remain non-aligned?
It was hard for countries to remain non-aligned because other countries were pressuring/forcing the noninvolved countries to be involved with the war.
Confrontations in the Middle East
Oil in the Middle East
The oil industry fueled a clash between the Islamic values and modern western materialism.
Iran had the biggest issues with this concept.
Reza was Iran's leader.
He embraced western governments and oil companies.
Iranian Nationalists didn't like Shah's foreign alliances so they united under someone different.
Muhammmed Mossadeq was their leader.
They forced Shah to flee.
The US Wants to Help
The US feared that Iran would seek help from the Soviets, so they wanted to help restore Shah to power.
The US helped Shah modernize the capital, but Iranians still lived in poverty.
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was a religious and strict political leader.
He hated the US and had Islamic revolutionaries seize the US embassy in Tehran in 1979.
More than 60 Americans were hostage and demanded the Shah to face trail.
The hostages remained for 444 days before being released in 1981.
Encouraged the overthrow of secular governments.
He caused issues with their next door neighbor - Iraq.
A War with Iraq
It started in 1980
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Could the United States have gained Khomeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
Yes, we think the United States could have gained Khomeini's support withdrawing aid to the Shah. Khomeini hated the United States because of it.
The Superpowers face Off in Afghanistan
Leading up to the War
Afghanistan has been able to remain independent but the Soviets are influencing it.
In the late 1970s, a Muslim revolt threatened to take down the Communist regime.
Due to this, a Soviet invasion occurred in 1979.
During the War
The Soviets were stuck because the rebel forces were strong.
The rebels were well-supplied.
Mujahideen - Afghan rebels or holy warriors
Details about the War
The US armed the rebels because the Soviets were a threat.
The US President warned the Soviets about attempting to gain control the Persian Gulf.
He boycotted the invasion by stop sending grain shipments to the Soviets and withdrawing from the Olympics.
1980 - Mikhail Gorbachev, acknowledged the war's costs and withdrew his troops by 1989.