The Cold War Divides the World (Confrontations In Latin America (Nuclear…
The Cold War Divides the World
Fighting For the Third World
Cold War Strategies
The United States, Soviet Union, and in some cases, China, used a variety of techniques to gain influence in the third world.
They backed wars of revolution, liberation, or counterrevolution. The U.S. and Soviet intelligence agencies—the CIA and the KGB—engaged in various covert, or secret, activities, ranging from spying to assassination attempts.
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
The U.S. should only engage in assassination if it involves someone who causes great amounts of harm and destruction
The Soviets offered military and technical assistance, mainly to India and Egypt.
The United States gave military aid, built schools, set up programs, and sent volunteers to many different locations.
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Other developing nations needed assistance. They became important players in the cold war competition between the US, Soviet Union, and later China.
Not all third war wished to play a role in the cold war. India vowed to remain neutral. Indonesia, a populous island nation in Southeast Asia, also struggled to stay uninvolved.
In 1955, it hosted many leaders from Asia and Africa at the Bandung Conference.
They met to form what they called a “third force” of independent countries, or nonaligned nations.
Some nations, such as India and Indonesia, were able to maintain their neutrality. But others took sides with the superpowers or played competing sides against each other.
More on the Bandung Conference
Why was it hard for countries to remain non aligned?
It was hard for them to remain non aligned because most countries needed help and could fight alone. So by aligning they had help and back up if they needed it.
Third World Countries
The 3rd world nations were located in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. These locations were economically poor and politicly unstable.
The unstableness was due to a long history of colonialism. They suffered from ethnic conflicts and lack of technology and education.
Soviet style communism and US- style free market democracy
Each needed a political and economic system around which to build its society.
The Third World
Confrontations In Latin America
Rapid industrialization, population growth, and a gap between the rich and poor led Latin American nations to seek aid from both superpowers
Short-lived democracy and harsh military rule
America was involved before the war
Communism and nationalistic feelings inspired revolutionary movements
Enthusiastic soviet support caused the US to provide assistance to anti-Communist dictators
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
in the '50s Cuba was ruled by Fulgencio Batista
Had US support, cuban resentment led to a popular revolution which overthrew him in '59
Led by Fidel Castro
At first, many people loved him for social reforms and improving the economy, but then he was a harsh dictator. He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press
Took over US owned sugar mills and refineries, Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba
Castro turned to the Soviets for economic and military aid
In '60 the CIA began to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles
In '61 they invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, and the US was humiliated
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
It backfired on the U.S because since we didn't help them and they went against use and made missile that could have been launched on use but we promised not not to invade Cuba. We lost part of there trust due to not helping them when we said we would if they needed help.
Nuclear Face-Off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that the US would not resist the Soviet expansion
In '62 Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba
In October, an American spy plane discovered the sites. JFK demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of Cuba because they were so close the the US mainland
Castro said that they were being a pawn
Made a deal for them to remove the US would not invade Cuba
Cuba relied on the Soviets in exchange for Communist revolutions, Soviet aid stopped in '91 due to the breakup of the Soviet Union
Castro was forced to loosen his strict state control
Cuban Missile Crisis
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
The United States didn't provide the air support that they had hoped to and got humiliated by the Castro's forces because they defeated the invaders and not us.
Civil War in Nicaragua
Funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza and his family since '33
In '79 Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza's son
Both the Soviets and the US gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega
They gave aid to other Marxist rebels in El Salvador, to help the El Salvadoran government fight the US supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist forces called the Contras or contrarevolicionaios
The civil war lasted more than a decade and drastically weakened the economy. That led to free elections and a reform candidate beating Ortega. Ortega then came back to office in 2006
Civil War in Nicaragua
Confrontations In the Middle East
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
After WWI, Iran's leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, embraced Western governments and wealthy Western oil companies
Iranian nationalists resented these foreign alliances and united under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq
They nationalized a British-owned oil company and forced the shah to flee
The United States feared Iran might turn to Soviets for support, so they helped restore the shah to power
Religion and the Cold War
The United States Supports Secular Rule
With U.S. support, the shah westernized his country
By the late 1950s, Iran's capital featured skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories
The leader opposing the Western influences was Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Ayatollah lived in exile
His tape-recorded messages caused Iranian riots in every major city in the late 1978
The shah fled Iran in 1979 because of overwhelming opposition
Ayatollah returned to establish an Islamic state
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
No, it was the opposers of Western influences that caused the outing of Shah Pahlovi from Iran
Could the United States have gained Komeini's support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
No, this would not have gained Komeini's support because the United States had much different ideals than Komeini.
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
In 1979, Islamic revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran
They took more than 60 Americans hostage and demanded the U.S. force the shah to face trial
Most hostages remained prisoners for 444 days before being released in 1981
Ayatollah encourages Muslim radicals elsewhere to overthrow their secular governments
This policy heightened tensions between Iran and Iraq as Saddam Hussein governed Iraq as a secular state
War broke out between Iran and Iraq in 1980
The U.S. secretly aided both sides
The Soviet Union supported Iraq
The UN negotiated a ceasefire in 1988
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
In the late 1970s, a Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan's Communist regime
This revolt led to a Soviet Invasion in 1979
The United States armed the rebels because they saw the Soviet invasion as a threat to Middle Eastern Oil
By 1989, Mikhail Gorbachev, the new Soviet President, withdrew all Soviet troops as the war had devastating costs