The Cold War Divides the World: Section 4 (Confrontations In Latin America…
The Cold War Divides the World: Section 4
Confrontations In Latin America
(Abbie &' Courtney)
After rapid industrialization and population growth Latin Americans had to seek aid from both rich and poor.
Many of these countries alternated between short lived democrcy and harsh military rule.
After the war, communism and nationalistic feelings inspired revolutionary movements.
These found Soviet support, in response the US provided military and economic assistance to anti-Communist dictators.
Communism: A way of organizing society in which the government owns the means of production and there is no private property.
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
In the 1950's, Cuba was led by a unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, he also had U.S. support. He was eventually overthrown in January 1959.
Fidel Castro led the revolution to overthrow Fulgencio. At first people praised Castro, yet he was a harsh dictator.
He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press.
When Castro nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over U.S. owned sugar mills.
In response, Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Then, Castro turned the soviets for economic and military aid.
In 1960, the CIA began to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles.
In April 1961, they invaded Cuba, landing at the Bay of Pigs.
Why was Castro Important? Answer: He established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere.
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced the Soviet leader that the US would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America.
In July 1962, the Soviet leader secrectly built 42 missile sites in Cuba. In October, an American spy plane discovered the sites.
President Kennedy saw this as a threat and demanded removal and announced a naval blockade of Cuba.
Continuity: An uninterrupted, consistent operation.
The removal of the missiles caused the US and the Soviets to clash. Many around the world feared a nuclear war.
The Soviet leader agreed to remove the missiles. The resolution of this left Castro completely dependent on Soviet support.
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
Cuban Missile Crisis
Civil War in Nicaragua
The United States funded the Nicaraguaran dictatorship of Anastasio Somaza and his family since 1933.In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza’s son.
The Sandinistas gave assistance to the to other Marxist rebels in nearby El Salvador to help them fight rebels.
The civil war in Nicaraguan lasted more then a decade and weakened economy.
In 1990, President Ortega agreed to hold free elections, the
first in the nation’s history.Violeta Chamorro,defeated him.
The Sandinistas were also defeated in elections in 1996 and 2001.
However, Ortega won the election in 2006
Why did the Sandinistas help the Marxist rebels?
Confrontation in the Middle East
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
Iranian leader Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi brings in western government ideas and wealthy oil companies.
Under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq, nationalists nationalized a British-owned oil company.
In 1953, Nationalists forced the shah to flee from power.
In fear of a soviet takeover, the United states helped put the Shah back in power
growing interest in the middle east's oil resource caused clashes between traditional Islamic values and modern Western Materialism.
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
in 1979, revolutionaries took control of the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
60 hostages were taken and a demand was made for the Shah to face trial.
Khomeini encouraged muslims to overthrow their secular governments.
This policy heightened tensions between Iran and its neighbor, Iraq.
in 1980 war breaks out between Iran and Iraq.
The U.S. helped both sides and the soviets only helped the Iraqis.
Could the United States have gained Komeini's support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
probably not considering Komeini already thought of us as an enemy.
A cease fire was negotiated in 1988
The United States Supports Secular Rule
The Shah successfully westernizes Iran
Millions of islamic people still lived in poverty despite the efforts of the Shah.
the Shah tries to weaken the political influence of his opposition, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.
Ayatollah successfully caused uproars amongst rebels using tape-recorded messages.
Multiple Riots accure throughout Iran causing the Shah to flee once again.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
In a way yes because ayatollah was a communist activist.
The SuperPowers Face Off in Afghanistan
in 1970 a muslim revolt threatened the Afghanistan Communist regime.
the revolt lead to a soviet invasion in 1979
Soviet Occupation in Afghanistan
The soviets got themselves stuck within the war.
just like in Vietnam, the Soviet union was out maneuvered by rebels.
in 1980, the Soviets got a new president named Mikhail Gorbachev, who new the devastation of the war.
in 1989, soviet troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan.
Because of the Soviet Occupation, the U.S. armed rebels to protect the Middle East oil supply.
President Jimmy Carter warned the Soviets of attacking the Persian Gulf, stopped grain shipments to the soviet Union, and boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
Fighting for the Third World
The Third World nations were located in Latin America, Asia and also Africa. All of them were poor and politically unstable. Each needed a political and economics system.
Why did they need political and economics system? Answer: So they could build its society easier.
Conflict: All poor and politically unstable.
Also suffered from ethnic conflicts and lack of education.
Why did they suffer from lack of attention? Answer: This is because they didn't have good enough educators so it would be hard to teach.
But how come they suffered ethnic conflicts?
Conflict: Only because they suffered from any things such as lack of education and many more things.
The independence movement led to the emergence of a series of countries that did not belong to the Western bloc or the
Cold War Strategies
USA, Soviet Union and China used a variety of techniques to gain influence for the Third World. All three backed up wars of revolution.The CIA and KGB engaged in various covert or secret activities ranging from spying to assassination attempts.
Why did they use a variety of techniques?
Within Europe that had been suppressed during the
Indentify: They witnessed secret actives from assassination attempts.
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Developing nation also needed assistance. However they did become important players in the Cold War competition between the USA, the Soviet Union and later on, China. Not everybody wanted to play a role in the Third World but India vowed to remain neutral between everyone. They met to form what they called "third force" of independent countries.
Why did they did assistance?
The purpose of the organization has been enumerated as to ensure "the national"
Patterns: There are many series that are consistant. Such as when they play the role in the Third World.