The Cold War Divides the World
The Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations in the Middle East- Jacob
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
Throughout the Middle East, oil industry wealth fueled a growing clash between traditional Islamic values.
In no country was this cultural conflict more dramatically shown than in Iran.
Iran’s leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi embraced Western governments and wealthy Western oil companies.
Iranian nationalists resented these foreign alliances and united
They nationalized a British-owned oil company and, in 1953, forced the shah to flee.
The U.S help restore the Shah back to power.
The Shah of Iran
Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies
Strict adherence to Islam ruled Khomeini’s domestic policies.
But hatred of the United States, because of U.S. support for the shah, was at the heart of his foreign policy.
Young Islamic revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
They took more than 60 Americans hostage and demanded the United States force the shah to face trial.
Khomeini encouraged Muslim radicals elsewhere to overthrow their secular governments.
War broke out between Iran and Iraq in 1980.
A million Iranians and Iraqis died in the war before the UN negotiated a ceasefire in 1988.
The Soviet Union, on the other hand, had long been a supporter of Iraq.
Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
More than likely yes, because the reason he did not like the United states was because we were supporting the Shah.
The United States Supports Secular Rule
With U.S. support, the shah westernized his country.
Millions of Iranians, however, still lived in extreme poverty.
The shah tried to weaken the political influence of Iran’s conservative Muslim leaders.
The leader of this religious opposition, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini was living in exile.
Spurred by his tape recorded messages, Iranians rioted in every major city in late 1978.
Faced with overwhelming opposition, the shah fled Iran in 1979.
A triumphant Khomeini returned to establish an Islamic state and to export Iran’s militant form of Islam.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
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Who opposed Western influences.
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
Afghanistan maintained its independence from both the neighboring Soviet Union and the United States.
In the late 1970s, a Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan’s Communist regime
This revolt led to a Soviet invasion in 1979.
The Soviets expected to prop up the Afghan Communists and quickly withdraw.
Supplied with American weapons, the Afghan rebels, called mujahideen, or holy warriors, fought on.
The United States had armed the rebels because they considered the Soviet invasion a threat.
President Jimmy Carter warned the Soviet against any attempt to gain control of the Persian Gulf.
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Fighting The Third World
Third World Nations: Latin America, Asia, and Africa
Economically poor and politically unstable (due to long history of colonialism)
Ethnic conflicts and lack of technology and education
Third World Nations
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Some nations wished to stay neutral in the Cold War
In 1955, Bandung Conference formed
non-aligned nations (independent countries)
India and Indonesia were able to maintain neutrality
Why was it hard for countries to remain non-aligned?
Because they were always being pressured to join a superpower, so they could help out that power when needed.
U.S., Soviet Union, and China all used techniques to gain influence in the Third World
backed wars of revolutions, liberation, or counterrevolution
CIA and KBG used secret activities (ex. spying)
The US gave military and financial aid
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
No, because it usually starts something that it's not intended to start.
CIA during the Cold War
Confrontations in Latin America
Emily + Tyler
Nuclear face off: the cuban missile crisis.
The failed bay of pigs invasion convinced Nikita Khrushchev, that the united states would not resist a Soviet expansion in Latin america
In July 1962 Khrushchev built 42 missile sites in Cuba. in October an American spy plane discovered the site
J.F.k declared that missile sites that close to the Unites States were a threat. and told them to remove the missiles
the aid from the Soviet Union to Cuba ended suddenly with the break up of the Soviet union in 1991
People around the world feared nuclear war, fortunately Khrushchev agreed to get rid of the missiles in Cuba.
In return a promise from the United States not to invade Cuba.
the resolution of the Cuba left Castro completely dependent on Soviet support, with the support being given to them Castro helped the communist revolutions in Latin America and Africa.
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
It showed that we don't mess around, If you have missiles near us we would consider it a threat
Civil War in Nicaragua
In 1979 Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza's son. The United States and Soviet Union initially gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader.
However the Sandinistas gave their support the other Marxist rebels in nearby El Salvador.To help the El Salvadoran fight those rebels the United States helped Nicaraguan anti-communist forces called the contras.
This civil war lasted for more than a decade. and weakened the countries economy.
In 1990 President Ortega decided to hold a free election, Violeta Chamorro defeated him. The Sandinistas were also defeated in 1996 and 2001
In 2006 Ortega regained power and took over again.
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
1950's - Ruled Cuba, had U.S. support
Brought social reforms to Cuba and improving the economy, but was a harsh dictator. He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press
When Castro nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over U.S. owned sugar mills and refineries. In response, Eisenhower an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Castro then turned to the Soviets for economic and military aid
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
Cuba allowed the Soviet Union to build 42 missile sites in their country where the missiles were aimed at the U.S.
1960 - CIA began to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles
1961 - Invaded China, landing at the Bay of Pigs
The U.S. didn't provide the hoped for air support. Castro's forces easily defeated the invaders, humiliating the U.S.
Bay of Pigs
Led the revolution that overthrew Fulgencio Batista, due to Cuban resentment in January 1959
After WWII, rapid industrialization, population growth, and a lingering gap between the rich and the poor led Latin American nations to seek aid from both superpowers
Many of these countries alternated between short lived democracy and harsh military rules
After the war, communism and nationalistc feelings inspired revolutionary movements
These found enthusiastic Soviet support
U.S. provided military and economic assistance to anti-Communist dictators