The Cold War Divides The World
The Cold War Divides The World
Confrontations In Latin America
After World War II, rapid industrialization, population growth, and a lingering gap between rich and poor led to the need of aid from both superpowers.
Their rulers alternated between democrats and harsh military leaders.
The U.S. supported Latin America even before World War II, and would have American businesses back up leaders that would protect them, but would also oppress their people.
After the war, Communism and Nationalistic feelings inspired revolutionary movements.
The Soviet Union had supported those feelings, causing the U.S. to support anti-Communism leaders and movements.
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
In the 1950's, Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, who was supported by the U.S.
A Cuban revolution led to the taken over and overthrowing of the dictator in January of 1959.
Fidel Castro helped improve the economy and brought social reforms too, but he was still a harsh dictator.
He suspended elections, executed his opponents, and controlled the press.
When Castro Nationalized Cuba, he took over U.S. sugar mills and refineries, causing Eisenhower to order an embargo on all trade with Cuba.
Castro turned to the Soviet Union for military and economic aid, so in 1960, the U.S. trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles.
In April 1961, they invaded Cuba by landing in the Bay Of Pigs, but they didn't have air support leading to the humiliating defeat of the U.S.
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How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
They lost their sugar mills and their refineries to Cuba.
The leader of the revolution was led by a young lawyer named Fidel Castro.
Fighting For The Third World
Setting the Stage
The nations were grouped politically into three "worlds"
The firsts the industrialized capitalist nations
The second was the communist nations led by the soviet union
The third world was developing nations, often newly independent and not aligned with either superpower
This included the United States and its allies
Located in Latin America, Asia, and Africa
This was due to a long history of colonialism
They had a lack of technology and education
They each needed a system of political and economic system around, so it built society.
U.S style free- market democracy were the main choices
They were economically poor and politically unstable
Third World Countries
Cold War Strategies
The Soviet Union and sometimes China used techniques to gain influence in the Third World.
The U.S. and the Soviet Union had groups like the CIA and the KGB that would assassinate important people.
Should the United States sometimes participate in assassinations?
No because that would mean that we could lose a lot of trust from other countries and that is highly needed in war.
Why was it so hard for allies to remain aligned?
Because of the actions of leaders in the past, left tension and suspicion among the countries.
Confrontations In The Middle East
Throughout the Middle East, oil industry wealth fueled a growing clash traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism.
They nationalized a British-owned oil company and in 1953, forced the shah to flee.
Fearing Iran might turn to the Soviets for support, the United States helped restore the shah to power
With U.S. support, the shah westernized his country.
By the end of the 1950s, Iran's capital, Tehran, featured gleaming skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories.
The shah tried to weaken the political influence of Iran's conservative Muslim leaders, known as ayatollahs who opposed Western influence.
Spurred by his tape-
recorded messages, Iranians rioted in every major city in late 1978.
Faced with overwhelming opposition, the shah fled Iran in 1979.
Strict adherence to Islam ruled Khomeini’s domes-
But hatred of the United States, because of U.S. support for the shah, was at the heart of his foreign policy.
They took more than 60
Americans hostage and demanded the United States force the shah to face trial.
Khomeini encouraged Muslim radicals elsewhere to overthrow their secular
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
Yes it was, not everyone agreed with the way things were going.
War broke out in Iran and Iraq in 1980. The united states helped both of them out by giving them resources. Iran and Iraq did not know about this.
The Super powers face of in Afghanistan.
For several years following the world war two. Afghanistan maintained independence.
In 1970 a muslim revolt broke out and threatened to topple their communist regime.
They found themselves stuck like the united states, Vietnam, and themselves as well
this led to the soviet invasion of 1979
The soviets expected to prop the Afghanistan people but they quickly with droo.
The Vietnam had good resources and a good military superpower.
The united states had gave them supplies because they thought the soviet invasion a big deal.
President Jimmy Carter the soviets to attempt to control of the Persian golf
He stopped the u.s of the grain shipment to the soviet union and he ordered the u.s. boycott.
in the 1980s a new soviet leader, acknowledged the wars desvistating costs.
he withdrew all of the troops by 1989 and he unrested the economic problems that they had.