The Cold War Divides the World
The Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations in Latin America (Braedon & Anna)
After World War II, there was rapid industrialization, population growth, and a gap between rich and poor. led Latin American nations want help from both superpowers.
The Us Was involved with Latin America before WII.
These countries switched between democracy and harsh military rule.
American businesses backed leaders who protected U.S. interests but who also often oppressed their people.
After the war communism and nationalistic feelings inspired revolutionary movements. Soviets want to spread communism. The United States provided military and economic support to anti-Communist dictators.
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
Civil War in Nicaragua
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted more than a decade and seriously weakened the country’s economy.
In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza’s son. Both the Soviets and the US gave aid.
in 1990 they got there first free elections.
Like in Batista the US funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza.
The soviets helped Castro in return he backed Communist revolutions in Latin America and Africa.
People feared a nuclear war. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba.
This ended in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union. Cuba sought out better aid from better countries.
In October an American spy plane discovered the sites. President John F. Kennedy wanted the sites closed because they were a threat. He wanted them removed and put a naval blockade of Cuba
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev thought the United States would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America. So, in July 1962, Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba.
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the US?
That our policy of brinkmanship only lead to crisis and that instead of making threats, talking out problems was the best solution to the problems.
When Castro nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over U.S.-owned sugar mills and refineries. In response, Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Castro then turned to the Soviets for economic and military aid.
Manny people liked Castro in the beginning because he was improving the economy. But he was a harsh dictator. He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press.
In 1960, the CIA began to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles. In April 1961, they invaded Cuba, landing at the Bay of Pigs. The US did not give air support and the forces were defeated.
Cubans did not like him so there was a revolution, he was overthrown January 1959. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro.
In the 1950s, Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, who had U.S. support.
Bay of Pigs
How did the US policy against Cuba backfire?
Cuba allowed the Soviet Union to build 42 missile sites in their country where the missiles were aimed at the U.S. Our policy didn't do much.
Confrontations in the Middle East (Olivia)
Values Clash in Iran
The oil industry sparked a clash between traditional values and materialism. The most prominent in Iran.
The shah (leader) of Iran supported Western governments after WWII. However, the nationalists came together under the Prime Minister and nationalized a British oil company. The shah fled, but was returned to power when the U.S. feared that Iran would to to the U.S.S.R. for help.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
Yes, communism was the cause for Shah Pahlovi to be dismissed because communism led his people to not believe in him.
What characteristics did the Prime Minister have that the shah did not? As in, was one a good speaker and the other bad, etc.?
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
The U.S. Supports Secular Rule
The U.S. helped Iran westernize their country with skyscrapers and modern factories, but many people were still in poverty.
To keep himself in power, the shah tried to weaken the influence of ayatollahs (conservative Muslim leaders).
The exiled leader, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini would tape-record messages to rally his people. In 1978 these tapes would lead Iranians in every large city to riot.
The shah fled in 1979 and Khomeini returned from exile to establish an Islamic state.
What made him think that by weakening his opposition people would like him more?
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
In 1979, Khomeini gave the go-ahead for his Islamic revolutionaries to seize the U.S. embassy. For 444 they held more than 60 Americans hostage. They did this to demand that the U.S. force the shah to face trial.
Khomeini also encouraged other radical Muslims to overthrow their governments with the goal of unifying all Muslims. This caused tensions between Iran and their neighbor Iraq to grow.
In 1980 war broke out between Iran and Iraq. The U.S. was supplying aid to both sides, while the Soviet Union supported only Iraq. The war cost a million lives before a ceasefire was negotiated in 1988.
Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
They couldn't have gained his support because by then they had already westernized Iran so much that It couldn't be undone.
The Iran-Iraq War: 25 Years Later
The Face Off in Afghanistan
Following WWII, Afghanistan maintained its independence from both superpowers. In the late 1970s, a Muslim uprising threatened to take over the communist government. This led to the Soviet invasion in 1979.
Much like the U.S. in Vietnam, the Soviets were stuck in Afghanistan. Like the Vietcong in Vietnam, the Afghan rebels outmaneuvered them and kept fighting.
The U.S. armed the rebels in order to contain communism and to keep their oil supplies open. After Jimmy Carter stopped shipments to the U.S.S.R. and boycotted the 1980 olympics, Mikhail Gorbachev withdrew all Soviet troops by 1989. At that point, unrest and economic problems within the U.S.S.R. began to tear it apart.
Where was the unrest taking place at?
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Fighting for the Third World
Cold World Strategies
United States, the Soviet Union, and, China, used a variety of techniques to gain influence in the Third World.
CIA and KGB engaged in various covert, or secret, activities, ranging from spying to assassination attempts.
United States also gave military aid, built schools, set up programs to combat poverty
Soviets offered military and technical assistance, mainly to India and Egypt.
Should the U.S sometimes engage in assassination?
Yes the U.S. should sometimes engage when there could be a dangerous threat.
Third world nations were located in Latin America, Asia and Africa.
Very poor and politically unstable because of there long history of colonialism
They suffered from ethnic conflicts and lack of technology and education
Soviet-style communism and U.S.-style free-market democracy were the main choices
Third World Nations
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Other nations also became important layers in the Cold War competition between the United States, the Soviet Union, and China
India vowed to remain neutral. Not all third world countries wanted to play a role in the Cold War.
They met to form what they called a “third force” of independent countries, or nonaligned nations
Some countries stayed neutral. Others took sides with the superpowers or played competing sides against each other.
It was hard to stay neutral because being a small country you can be easily taken over so lots of countries gave in and joined bigger powers that could protect them.
Why was it hard for countries to remain non aligned?