The Cold War Divides the World (Confrontations in the Middle East (The…
The Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations in the Middle East
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
The wealth of the oil industry created problems between Islamic values and Western materialism
The Shah of Iran liked Western governments and their oil, but the nationalists disagreed and nationalized a oil company from Britain
This caused the Shah to flee but the United States helped him return to power
These issues created problems in Iran
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
Following World War 2, Afghanistan maintained independence from the Soviet Union and the United States
In 1950, the Soviet Union influence in the country started in increase.
Soviets expected to prop up the Afghan Communists and quickly withdraw. Instead, they found themselves stuck.
Like the Vietcong in Vietnam, rebel forces outmaneuvered military superpower. They were supplied with American weapons and they fought on.
In 1970, Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan's Communist regime. This lead to the Soviet invasion in 1979.
United States had armed the rebels, they considered the Soviet invasion a threat to the Middle Eastern oil supplies.
President Jimmy Carter warned the Soviets against any attempt to gan control of the Persian Gulf.
To protest the invasion, he stopped US grain shipments to the Soviet Union and ordered a US boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
In 1980, new Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, acknowledged the war's devastating costs.
He withdrew Soviet troops by 1989. By then, internal unrest and economic problems were tear apart the Soviet Union.
Biography about Jimmy Carter
Culture: Traditions, customs, or way of life of a community.
The United States Supports Secular Rule
Because of the help from the U.S. Iran became westernized and became more modern
Though the country was more modern, citizens still lived in poverty
The Muslim leaders, specifically Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, did not like westernization
The citizens rioted and the Shah fled again, this time leaving Khomeini with all of the power
About Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
Strict adherence to Islam ruled Khomeini's domestic policies. Hatred of the US, because of the support for the shah.
Could the United States have gained Komeini's support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
1979, ayatollah's blessing, young Islamic revolutionaries seized the US embassy in Tehran.
Took more than 60 Americans hostage and demanded the US force the shah to face trial. Remained hostage for 444 days before released in 1981.
Encouraged Muslim radicals elsewhere to overthrow their secular governments.
Policies heightened the tensions between Iran and Iraq. Saddam Hussein governed Iraq as a secular state.
War broke out between Iran and Iraq in 1980. US secretly gave aid to both sides because it didn't want the balance of power to change.
The Soviet Union had long been a supporter of Iraq.
Million of Iranians and Iraqis died in the war before the UN negotiated a ceasefire in 1988
Was communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pablovi from Iran? Yes because millions of the people had died.
More about the war
Confrontations in Latin America
Latin America needed aid from both superpowers, because WW2 left them in an awful place.
Communist and nationalist feelings came up because of everything that happened during the war.
U.S. only gave aid to the anti-communist dictators.
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
The Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista was a very unpopular dictator in Cuba, but he had the support of the US.
There was a popular revolution because of Cuban resentment, which overthrew Batista in January 1959. Fidel Castro led this revolution.
Castro was very popular at first when he was a dictator, but he was very harsh. He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press.
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
Castro took over the U.S-Owned sugar mills and refineries. In response, Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Castro then turned to the Soviets for economic and military aid.
In 1960 the CIA began to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles. In April 1961 they invaded Cuba. The US didn't have the air support needed and Castro's forces easily defeated the invaders.
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
The United States was not giving up resistance and the Soviet Union knew that so they began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba.
President Kennedy did not like that they missiles were so close to the U.S. Mainland that he wanted them remove and then to make them more safe, he announced a naval blockage around Cuba.
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
Answer: It revealed that the United States was not willing to be put in danger by other countries and they would do anything to prevent having another Nuclear War. They did not want to risk entering another war.
Cuba was under the aid of the Soviet Union, but when they broke up then Cuba was left in a bad situation.
President Kennedy During Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
Civil War in Nivargua
The US also funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza and his family since 1933.
The US and the Soviet Union helped the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega. The Sandinistas helped the other Marxist rebels in nearby El Salvador.
The US supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist forces called the Contras.
The Civil war in Nicaragua lasted more than a decade and weakened the country's economy.
In 1990, President Ortega had free elections.
The Sandinistas were also defeated in elections in 1996 and 2001. Ortega won the election in 1006 and returned to power.
Fighting for the third world
Third world nations were located in Latin America, Asia, Africa.
These countries were poor and politically unstable because of a history of colonialism .
These countries suffered ethic conflicts and a lack of technology and education.
These countries needed a political an economical system
Cold war strategies
The U.S soviet union and sometimes China use different techniques to influence the influence the third war countries and backed wars.
The CIA and the KBG were in secret activities like spying and attempted assassination.
The U.S gave AId build schools and helped fight poverty.
Association of Nonaligned Nation
Other developing Nations were very important to the cold war.
Third war countries did not wanna get involved Asia and African leaders met at the Bandong conference the formed the third force also none as no alliance nations.
India and Indonesia stayed neutral other too sides with the super powers and computed with each other.
What were the important player in the cold war for the Soviet Union and the United states? Other Developing nation played a important part for the out come.
Why It Matters Now?
Many of these areas are troubled by political economic and, military conflicts and crisis
Haylie & Stephanie
Carlie & Kennedy