The Cold War Divides the World (Confrontations In Latin America (Civil War…
The Cold War Divides the World
Fighting For The Third World
The Third World nations were located in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
These nations were economically poor and politically unstable.
This was due to a long history of colonialism.
These nations also suffered from ethnic conflicts and lack of technology and education.
Each needed a political and economic system around which to build its society.
The choices were Soviet-style communism and U.S.-style free-market democracy.
History of Third World Counties
You will need to scroll towards the bottom of the page to find the section about the time after WW2.
Cold War Strategies
Multiple countries used a variety of techniques to gain influence in the Third World.
These countries included the United States, the Soviet Union, and, in some cases, China.
They backed wars of revolution, liberation, or counterrevolution.
The U.S. and Soviet intelligence agencies - the CIA and the KGB - engaged in various covert, or secret, activities. These ranged from spying to assassination attempts.
The U.S. gave military aid, built schools, set up programs to combat poverty, and sent volunteer workers to many developing nations.
The Soviets offered military and technical assistance, mainly to India and Egypt.
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
Engaging in assassination would benefit the U.S. by eliminating enemy commanders, but it is not necessary.
Modern U.S. Aid
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Some other developing nations needed assistance.
They became important players in the Cold War competition between the U.S. the Soviet Union, and later, China.
However, not all Third World countries wished to play a roll in the Cold War.
India vowed to remain neutral.
Indonesia, an island nation in Southeast Asia, struggled to stay uninvolved.
In 1955, Indonesia hosted a gathering of leaders from Asia and Africa at the Bandung Conference.
They met to form what was called a "third force" of independent countries.
Some nations were able to maintain their neutrality.
Other nations took sides with the superpowers or competed against each other.
Why was it hard for countries to remain non aligned?
It was hard for countries to remain neutral because they needed support from other countries to thrive, but didn't want to take it from the superpowers that were offering help.
Confrontations In Latin America
After WWII Latin Americans looked for aid in the superpowers because of rapid industrialization, population growth, and a gap between the rich and poor.
US involvement in Latin America began before WWII started
Businesses backed up leaders who protected the US interests.
Many countries went between a democracy and a harsh military rule
Communism and nationalistic feelings started revolutionary movements
This gained the support of the Soviet Union
The US provided military and economic help to any anti-communist dictators in return
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator named Fulgencio Batista
The US supported him but the Cuban people did not which led to a revolution.
Fidel Castro led this revolution and over threw Batista in 1959
Castro became the new leader after he was over thrown
Many people liked him at first because he brought social reforms to Cuba and improved the economy
He took over US sugar mills and refineries when he nationalized Cubas economy
In retaliation Eisenhower stopped all trade with Cuba
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He was a very harsh dictator
Jailed his opponents
tightly controlled the press
He suspended elections
Nuclear Face-Off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
Failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, that the US wouldn't resist Soviet expansion
In July 1962, Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba.
3 moths later an American spy plane found the site
Kennedy believed the missiles were to close and a threat so he demanded they be removed
Bay of Pigs
Civil War in Nicaragua
The United States supported Batista in Cuba just like Nicaraguan funded the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza and his family
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted more than a decade and seriously weakened the country's economy.
Ortega won the election in 2006 and returned to power after being defeated by Chamorro in the free election in 1990.
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
Cuba still allowed Cuba to put 42 missiles on there territory which did nothing.
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
Because then Cuba asked the Soviet Union for help and then they built missile sites in their country and they were aimed at the US
Confrontations In The Middle East
Religious and Secular Values Clash in the Middle East
Old industry wealth throughout the Middle East fueled a growing clash between traditional islamic values and Western materialism.
After World War II Iran's leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, embraced western governments and oil companies.
Iranian nationalists resented these foreign alliances.
They nationalized a British oil company and forced the shah to flee Iran in 1953.
The United States feared that the Iranian nationalists would turn to the Soviets for help, so they brought the shah back to power.
The United States Supports Secular Rule.
The shah tried to weaken the power of conservative muslim leaders, known as ayatollahs.
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The shah westernized his country with the help of the U.S.
By 1950, Irans capital Tehran was full of foreign banks and modern factories. Most of Iran lived in poverty, however.
Conflict: The conflict with Iranian nationalists made the shah flee the country.
The Iranian nationalists united under prime minister Muhammed Mossadeq.
Biography of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
The conflict was most dangerous in Iran
War of Iran and Iraq