The Cold War Divides The World (Confrontations in the Middle East…
The Cold War Divides The World
Fighting for the Third World
Third World nations were countries that were not aligned with The United States or the Soviet Union. They were economically poor and politically unstable.
Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union tried to gain influence in these countries with their different political and economic systems.
They used propaganda, espionage, foreign aid, multinational alliances and surrogate wars to tried to influence the developing countries.
Some countries wished to remain neutral they formed a "third force" or a group of nonaligned nations. These countries included India and Indonesia as well as others.
Why is it hard for some countries to remain nonaligned?
There was a lot of pressure from both sides to join them, and joining one of the sides could potentially bring the country of of poverty and instability.
However some of these countries eventually chose a side and ended their neutrality.
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
No, assassinations can cause wars, and if it was found out that we were behind it we could get involved in something a lot bigger than it needs to be.
Third World Countries
Confrontations in the Middle East
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
The oil industry wealth caused conflicts between traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism.
After World War II, Iran's leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, embraced Western governments and wealthy Western oil companies.
In 1953, the Iranian nationalists forced the shah to flee. The US feared that the Soviets might help Iran so we helped the shah to power
The United States Supports Secular Rule
With the help of the US, the shah westernized his country.
The shah tried to weaken the political influence of Iran's conservative Muslim leaders, (ayatollahs), who opposed Western influences.
Iranians rioted in every major city in late 1978. Faced with overwhelming opposition, the shah fled Iran in 1979.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
Yes, many of his people didn't support communist, so they ousted him.
Khomeini's Anti-US Policies
Strict adherence to Islam ruled Khomeini's domestic policies, but hatred of the United States was at the heart of his foreign policy.
In 1979, young Islamic revolutionaries seized the US embassy in Tehran.
They took more than 60 Americans hostage and demanded the US force the shah to face trial.
Most hostages remained prisoners for 444 days before being released in 1981
Khomeini encouraged Muslim radicals to overthrow their secular governments.
In 1980, a war broke out between Iran and Iraq
The United States secretly supported both sides, while the Soviet Union supported Iraq.
Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
Yes, he could have gained their support. By withdrawing aid to the Shah it would show the U.S. support for them.
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
Afghanistan maintained it's independence for several years after the war.
In the late 1970s, a Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan's Communist regime.
This led to a Soviet invasion in 1979
The United States had armed the rebels because they considered the Soviet invasion a threat to the Middle Eastern oil supplies.
President Jimmy Carter stopped US grain shipments to the Soviets and ordered US boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
In the 1980s, a new Soviet president acknowledged the war as devastating costs.
He withdrew all Soviet troops by 1989. By then, internal unrest and economic problems were tearing apart the Soviet Union itself
Confrontations in Latin America
Latin America was in seek of aid from either super power after World War 2.
The Soviet Union would assist but also bring along communism
In a effort to prevent this, United States provided military and economic assistance to all anti-communist dictators.
Conflict in Cuba
After Fidel Castro took power from the unpopular leader Fulgencio Batista he quickly became a harsh leader. In nationalizing Cuba he took over U.S.-owned sugar mills and refineries.
In response Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba
Castro angered with the US embargo turned to the Soviet Union for economic and military help.
In April of 1962 United States made an attempt to invade Cuba. With out air support the attack was a huge failure and was named
The Bay of Pigs
Cuba missile crisis
Cuba with Soviet unions help build over 40 missile sites. The US demanded that these sites be taken down. Castro claimed he didn't want his country to be part of the cold war and the sites would be removed as long as the Americans promised not to invade.
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
Soviet leader Nikita thought after the bay of pigs the US would not resist the Soviet expansion in Latin America. He was wrong although we lost a battle we were not willing to let the Soviets expand into latin America
The US also gave its support to anti-Communist forces in Nicaragua after the end of Anastasio's dictatorship.
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba back fire?
The US supported Batista but after he was over thrown the new leader was no longer willing to work with America. Castro had ideas that alined better with the Soviet Unions
Why would Cuba join Soviet union?