Cold War Divides the World
Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations In Latin America
Post World War II, rapid industrialization, population growth, and the gap between the rich and poor led Latin American to look for help from both superpowers
Many countries alternated between short-lived democracy and harsh military rule
The United States involvement in Latin America started long before World War II
American businesses supported leaders who protected U.S. interests
After World War II, communism and nationalistic feelings caused revolutionary movements
These revolutionary movements received enthusiastic support from the Soviet Union
In response the United States provided military and economic supports to anti-Communist dictators
How did the U.S. policy towards Cuba backfire?
Cuba allowed the Soviet Union to build 42 missile sites in their country where they would be able to hit the United States in no time at all
Cuban Missile Crisis
Government Systems - The institutions or systems, which make up the government of a nation
The Cuban Missile Crisis
July 1962, Khrushchev began building 42 missile cites in Cuba and American spy plane discovered these cites
John F Kennedy agreed to not invade Cuba as Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles as citizens were scared of a nuclear war.
Castro was completely dependent on Soviet support in exchange Castro backed Communist revolutions in Latin America.
Soviet aid to Cuba ended quickly with the breakup of the Soviet Union.
This section had a lot to do with the community, as country leaders were caring for what would happen to there citizens if an all-out nuclear war were to happen.
This loss dealt a crippling blow to the Cuban economy. Cuba sought better relations with other countries.
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
The Cuban Missile Crisis showed that the U.S. wasn't ready for a nuclear war, and needed to make peace with Cuba as citizens were panicking.
Cuban Missiles Explained
Civil War In Nicaragua
Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza's son. U.S. and Soviets gave aid to the Sandinistas however also gave assistance to other Marxist rebels.
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted more than a decade and weakened the countrys economy.
In 1990, President Ortega agreed to hold free elections, the first in the nation's history.
Sandinistas were defeated in the elections however Ortega won the election in 2006 and returned to power after Violeta Chamorro defeated him.
To help El Salvador the U.S. supported Nicaraguan anti-communist.
Fidel Castro and The Cuban Revolution
During the 1950s Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator named Fulgencio Batista
In 1959, Cuban resentment led to a popular revolution that was led by Fidel Castro
Many people praised Castro for improving the economy and bringing social reforms
Castro was a harsh dictator
Jailed or executed his opponents
Tightly controlled the press
Castro took over U.S.-owned sugar mills and refineries
Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba
Castro looked to the Soviet Union for economic and military aid
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Self Interest - the act or policy of making decisions based on what is best for the individual, group or nation
Revolution - the forcible overthrow of a government, or social order in favor of a new system
Confrontations in the Middle East
After WWII in Iran, traditional Islamic ways of life, and western ways of life began to clash
The United States supported secular government in Iran, and supported the west friendly shah.
Natural Resources: The US supported the Shah because of our interest in the Oil Supplies the middle east has.
But by 1978 the shah was out of favor, and an Islamic state was formed.
The leader of Iran, Khomeini, had a very anti-US policy. In 1979, Iranians seized the US embassy, and took more than 60 prisoners who were captives for 444 days.
Could the United States have gained Komeini's support by withdrawing aid to the Shah? I
I think that we could have gained his support. His main reason for hating the US was because we supported the Shah.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
Was communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi?
No, the Shah was trying to lead a secular state, and the people wanted to install an Islamic state in Iran.
In Afghanistan, the communist government was beginning to crumble by the late 70's.
The Soviets invaded in 1979, and found themselves in a conflict much like the US in Vietnam.
The US supported the rebels with supplies, and they eventually drove the Soviets out.
Invasion: The Soviets invaded Afghanistan with their military.
Fighting for the Third World
Third world nations were located in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. They were economically and politically unstable due to colonialism.
They both need systems of government and democracy and communism were the top choices.
Cold War Strategies
The United States and the Soviet Union used varying methods to spread their influence in these countries. They backed revolutions, liberations, and counterrevolutions.
The Soviets and the Americans used their secret services for spying and even assassinations.
The United States offered humanitarian aid to many of these countries with the Soviets mostly backed countries like Egypt and India with military equipment.
Should the Americans sometimes engage in assassination?
I think that in cases where a leader is doing very bad things, I don't see the problem in it. It is important not to meddle though.
KGB and CIA
What were some examples of this?
The concept of balance applies to the balance of power between the United States and the Soviets in the Cold War.
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Many underdeveloped nations needed assistance and became important parts of the cold war, while others did not wish to participate.
India struggled to remain Neutral and in 1955 the island of Indonesia brought together other underdeveloped Asian and African nations to the Bandung Conference.
Together they formed a third force in the world of neutral, or nonaligned nations.
Some nations like India and Indonesia were able to keep their neutrality while other fells to the superpowers sides.
Why was it hard for some nations to remain nonaligned?
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The concept of change applies to the changing alliance of the Cold War.
What other countries were in this conference?
Were there any other choices for them?