The Cold War Divides the World
The Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations in the Middle East
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi embraced Western government and oil companies.
Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq sided with Iranian nationalists that didn't like foreign alliances
In 1953 they had nationalized a British-owned oil company and forced the shah to flee
The United States put the Shah back in power because they feared communism.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
No, the nationalists merely wanted to support their country and not have to rely on other countries. Shah Pahlovi wanted to unite with foreign oil companies. The disagreement between these two led to the ouster of Shah Pahlovi.
The United States Supports Secular Rule
The US helped westernize Iran. By the 1950's skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories existed in Iran, however, a lot of Iranians lived in extreme poverty.
Why would Iranians still be living in poverty?
The political influence of ayatollahs, conservative Muslim leaders, opposed the Western influence.
The leader, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, lived in exile
When Khomeini returned he established an Islamic state.
Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
No, because Komeini didn't support interaction with other countries. He would not have good terms with us anyways because he would always think of us as trying to help Iran when he supports no outside help.
In 1978 Iranians rioted in the major cities.
In 1979 the shah fled because of the overwhelming opposition.
Photos of Iran before the revolution
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
1979-U.S. embassy in Tehran is seized.
More than 60 Americans were held hostage and they demanded the shah faces trial.
They were released in 1981.
Muslim radicals were encouraged to overthrow their secular governments.
Saddam Hussein governed Iraq as a secular state.
1980 - War began in Iran and Iraq
1988 a ceasefire was called.
More Information on the Iran-Iraq War
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
1950 - Soviet influence increased
1970 - Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan's Communist regime
1979 - Soviet invasion
The US had armed the Afgan rebels, called mujahideen.
1989 - Soviet troops withdrawn
1980 - US boycott of Moscow Olympics and grain shipments stopped
Pictures of Afghanistan in the 1960s
Confrontations in Latin America
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisist
The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that the United States would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America. In July 1962, Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in Cuba.
In October, an American spy plane discovered the sites. President John F. Kennedy declared that missiles so close to the U.S. main-land were a threat. He demanded removal and slo announced a naval blockade of Cuba.
Kennedy's demand for the removal of Soviet missiles put the United States and the Soviet Union on a collision course. Fortunately, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba.
The resolution left Castro dependent on Soviet support. To get this support, Castro backed Communist revolutions in Latin America and Africa.
The Soviet aid to Cuba ended in 1991, with the breakup of the Soviet Union. This caused a crippling blow to the Cuban economy.
Over time, Castro loosened stat control of Cuba's economy and sought better relation with other countries.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Civil War in Nicaragua
Just as the U.S. supported Cuba, it funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Samoza since 1933. In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Samoza's son.
The U.S. and Soviet Union gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega. However, the Sandinistas gave assistance to rebels nearby in El Salvador.
To help the El Salvadoran government, the U.S. supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist forces called the Contras.
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted more than a decade and seriously weakened the country's economy.
President Ortega agreed to hold free elections, however, Violeta Chamorro defeated him. The Sandinista were also defeated in the elections in 1996 and 2001. Ortega won the election in 2006 and returned to power.
More info about the civil war
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
In the 1950s, Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, who had U.S. support.
Fidel Castro led a revolution that overthrew Batista in January 1959.
People praised Castro for Cuban social reforms and improving the economy, yet Castro was a harsh dictator.
Eisenhower ordered an embargo on trade with Cuba, but Castro turned to the Soviets for economic and military aid.
In April 1961, the U.S. invaded Cuba, landing in the Bay of Pigs.
The U.S. didn't provide the air support, as a result, Castro's forces easily defeated the invaders, humiliating the U.S.
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
They went to invade cuba in the bay of pigs and cuba destroyed them and left the United States humiliated. We invaded another country when we could have stayed out of it and we got messed up
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
They wanted those missiles out and wanted them out fast. The United States was worried that if cuba were to have gotten missiles they were so close that they could have sent them off and destroyed us. Plus we were spying on them with a drone.
Fighting for the Third World
Third World nations were all located in Latin America, Asia and Africa. These countries were economically poor and politically unstable.
These countries also suffered through ethnic conflicts and lacked technology and education.
Each county needed a political and economic system, so they could build a society. Soviet-style communism and U.S.-style free-market democracy were the two main choices.
Cold War Stategies
In order to gain influence over the Third World countries, the U.S., Soviets and sometimes China would used a variety of techniques.
The U.S. and the Soviets would use their IA's to engage in many different covert, or secret, activities, ranging from spying to assassination attempts.
The U.S. would send their military to aid the third world's by helping build schools, help fight their wars, create programs to combat the poverty and we sent volunteer workers to many developing nations.
The Soviets only offered their military and technical assistance mainly to India and Egypt.
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
In my opinion I don't think that they should have or we should ever.
Association of Nonaligned Nations
During the Cold War, there were other developing countries that needed aid as well.
The other developing countries became a very important players in the war.
The countries helped in the Cold War competition between the U.S., the Soviets and sometimes China.
There were many of the Third World's that didn't want to be any part of the Cold War.
In 1955, Indonesia hosted many leaders from Asia and Africa at the Bandung Conference. These countries met to form what they called a "Third Force".
Indonesia, a populous island nation in Southeast Asia, also struggled to stay uninvolved.
Some nations, such as India and Indonesia, were able to maintain their neutrality. However there were others who took sides with the superpowers or played competing sides against each other.
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Why was it hard for countries to remain non aligned?
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