The Cold War Divides The World (Confrontations in Latin America (Fidel…
The Cold War Divides The World
Setting the Stage
The world was divided into three parts: The Industrialized Capitalists, The Communists, and the Developing Nations
The Third World provided new competition to the other two global superpowers
Confrontations in Latin America
WWII left Latin America poor and struggling and subsequently seeking aid from both the capitalists and the communists
The rule in Latin America was constantly shifting between democracy and military rule
American businesses were supporting these harsh leaders, making the Soviet Union seem favorable
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
Cuba was ruled by the American-backed (yet unpopular) dictator, Fulgencio Batista in the 1950s
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In 1959, they overthrew Batista, led by Fidel Castro
Castro was initially heralded as a good leader but turned out to be incredibly harsh
Castro executed opponents, suspended elections, controlled the press, and even nationalized the economy
Eisenhower ordered an embargo so Castro turned to the Soviets
Cuba eventually invaded the U.S., defeating them during their invasion at the Bay of Pigs
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
Khrushchev, convinced that the U.S. will continue fighting in Latin America, built 42 missile sites in Cuba
This sites were then discovered by an American spy plane and Pres. JFK ordered them to be removed and formed a naval blockade
Castro didn’t want to be a “pawn” in the Cold War despite being deeply involved but the missiles were soon removed
Cuba deeply depended upon the Soviet Union and when they fell, Cuba’s economy was crippled
Civil War in Nicaragua
America also supported Anastasio Somoza, who’s family had been in charge since 1933
They were overthrown by the Communist Sandinista in 1979
Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union provided aid to Daniel Ortega (Sandinistas’ leader) but he gave aid to Marxist rebels in El Salvador
The U.S. supported the “contrarevolucionarios” or the anti-Communist forces
Nicaragua’s civil war lasted over a decade and crippled the economy
Ortega, in 1990, held free elections for the first time in the nation’s history and eventually returned to power in 2006
More on the Sandinista Revolution
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
The U.S. wants to deescalate, though sometimes in awful ways, like demands and blocakdes
More on the Cuban Missile Crisis...
More on the Bay of the Pigs...
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
The U.S. thought the embargo would make Cuba un-nationalize the economy but it simply made Cuba turn to the Soviet Union
Oil industry wealth fueled a growing clash between traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism
After WW2 Iran's leader Shah Mohammed reza Pahlavi embraced Western governments and wealthy Western oil companies
Iranian nationalists resented foreign alliances and united under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq.
They nationalized a British owned oil company and in 1953 forced shah to flee Fearing Iran might turn to the Soviets the United States helped restore the shah to power.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
Yes it was because they didn't support Iran getting involved with the U.S. but the only reason that the U.S. got involved was to keep the Soviet Union out.
Middle-east oil history
By the end of the 1950s Iran's capital featured skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories.
Millions of Iranians sill lived in extreme poverty, the shah tried to weaken political influence of Iran's conservative muslim influences
The leader of the religious opposition was Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini and was living in exile.
Iranians rioted in every major city faced with overwhelming opposition the shah fled Iran in 1979
Khomeini returned to establish an Islamic state and to export Iran's militant form of Islam
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
They had a hatred for the U.S. because of their support for the Shah. This hatred was a large part of Khomeini's foreign policy.
In 1979, this hatred drove Islamic revolutionaries to take the U.S. embassy and held 60 Americans and they weren't released until 1981.
Khomeini encouraged Muslim radicals to overthrow their governments. This heightens tensions between Iraq and Iran.
War broke out in Iraq and Iran in 1980, the United States helped both sides because they didn't want the balance of power to change.
The Soviets however were long time supporters of Iraq.
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
Following WWII Afghanistan maintained its independence from both the U.S. and the Soviet Union. In 1950 however the Soviet influence started to increase.
In 1970's a Muslim revolt threatened to topple the Communist regime in Afghanistan. This lead to an invasion from Russia.
This invasion acted a lot like the Vietnam war, Russia planned on probing up the communist party and leaving but they got stuck. They were also outmaneuvered by rebel forces.
The U.S. supplied these rebels because they saw this invasion as a threat to middle eastern oil supplies.
The U.S. warned the Soviets not to try and gain control over the Persian gulf. To protest the invasion the U.S. boycotted grain shipments to the Soviets and a boycott of the 1980 Moscow olympics
Mikhail Gorbachev became the new president of the Soviet Union. He withdrew all Soviet troops, but by this time internal unrest was already tearing Russia apart.
Iraq War vs. Vietnam War
Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
They could have gained his support because the only reason he didn't like the U.S. was because they supported the Shah.
Fighting for the Third World
Third World countries (located in Africa, Latin America, and Asia) were way behind and very poor because of being previously colonized.
Each country was in desperate need of help and were being swarmed by both sides, urging them to join
Each side send in aid to help grow the Third World countries and persuade them to join one side or the other
Ways to "Help":
Some countries didn't want to be involved in the conflicts
These countries grouped together to form a third super power group called the "nonaligned nations"
Backed wars of revolution, liberation, or counterrevolution
They sent in the CIA and the KGB to do covert missions
Spy Stories from the Cold War
Spies did various things that included assassination attempts
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
I don' think that the U.S. should be involved in other country's assassinations because it could start a war if they were to ever find out that we were a part of it.
Gave military assistance
Set up programs to combat poverty, sent volunteers to developing nations
Why was it hard for countries to remain non aligned?
The nonaligned countries would be threatened and persuaded to join one side or the other.
Confrontations in the Middle East
Religious and Secular Values clash in Iran
United States Supports Secular Rule