Unit 5 (Respiratory System (When the air pressure in the lungs drops,…
As all this is happening, carbon dioxide is being taken out of the body through breathing out.
Oxygen moves through the walls of the alveoli and capillaries into the blood.
Alveoli: tiny sacs surrounded by blood vessels called capillaries
After the bronchial tubes, the air eventually moves to the alveoli.
In the lungs, the air moves into smaller passageways called bronchial tubes.
Once the air goes down the trachea, it enters the lungs
When you breathe in, air enters your body through the nose or mouth and down the trachea.
When the air pressure in the lungs drops, higher pressure air from the outside rushes to take its palce
When the diaphragm relaxes, the air pressure in the lungs drops.
When you breathe in, the diaphragm relaxes and goes down while the lungs expand.
Diaphragm: a dome-shaped muscle
Breathing is the main part of the respiratory system.
Since you can't store it, your body takes it in all the time in the process of breathing.
Oxygen in your body allows all cells to make energy so they can function properly.
Your body can not store oxygen.
Capillaries: tiny blood vessels that transport absorbed monosaccharides, amino acids, and water to the bloodstream. The nutrients are then carried to body cells
Pancreas: produces digestive enzymes. These include amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates, trypsin, which breaks down proteins, and lipase, which breaks down fats. The pancreas also produces an alkaline solution that neutralizes acid.
Gallbladder: stores a chemical called bile, which is produced by the liver. Bile helps to break up large fat globules into much smaller particles.
Parietal Cells: produce hydrochloric acid, which increases the efficiency of pepsin
Chief Cells: produce pepsin, which begins the digestion of proteins by breaking large protein molecules into smaller molecules called peptides. Pepsin works best in an acidic environment.
Salivary Gland: moistens food, helping to break it up and lubricate its passage through the digestive system. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, which starts the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into sugars
Salivary gland connects to the mouth/pharynx. Chief and parietal cells are in the stomach. The gallbladder and pancreas are in the small intestine: duodenum. Capillaries are on both parts of the small intestine and the large intestine. Lymphatic vessels are on both parts of the small intestine.
Rectum/Anus: stores and compacts waste before it is eliminated through an opening called the anus.
Large Intestine: water and vitamin K are absorbed from food that passes through the large intestine. Bacteria help to break down fiber and other materials
Small Intestine Jejunum/Ileum: make up most of the small intestine, which is up to 6 meters in length. Villi along the walls of the jejunum and ileum absorb nutrients and water.
Small Intestine Duodenum: muscular tube that is lined with structures called villi. Each villus looks like a tiny finger and allows nutrients and water to pass through the walls of the duodenum.
Stomach: muscular pouch that can hold 1-3 liters of food. The walls of the stomach are lined with mucus to protect them from acid. The stomach churns to break food down mechanically.
Esophagus: This muscular tube is lined with mucus. In the process of peristalsis, muscles contract to move food from one end to another
Mouth: contains teeth, which start mechanical digestion by cutting and grinding food into small pieces. The tongue helps to push food back into the throat, or pharynx.
In the digestive system, mouth comes first, then esophagus, then stomach, then small intestine: duodenum, then small intestine: jejunum/ileum, then large intestine, and finally the rectum.
Order is Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Lungs, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Body
The four chambers of the heart are right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle
Pulmonary arteries are poor in oxygen and blue unlike all other arteries
Pulmonary veins are rich in oxygen and red unlike all other veins
Capillaries deliver the nutrients to the body and connect veins and arteries
Arteries take blood away from the heart
Veins return blood to the heart
The left ventricle delivers blood to the body.
The left atrium delivers blood to the left ventricle
The lungs deliver blood to the left atrium
The right ventricle delivers blood to the lungs
The right atrium delivers blood to the right ventricle
Nephrons are in the kidneys
Nephrons are filters
The fullness of the bladder determines when you need to go to the bathroom
The urethra delivers urine from the bladder to the outside world
Sphincter muscles keep urine from leaking out of the bladder
Bladders can expand, like a balloon.
Urine is mostly water
Before the kidneys filter it out, urea exists in the bloodstream.
Kidneys filter urea out.
Urine enters the kidneys, travels through the ureters, and then goes out through the bladder and urethra.
The main function of the urinary system is to remove poisons from your body.
Example of homeostasis: Boris doesn't drink a lot of water one day. To compensate, his kidneys remove less fluid from his blood and produce less urine than normal.
Shivering has no effect on body temperature
Less clothing decreases body temperature
More clothing increases body temperature
Take breaks to lower fatigue
Food and water are necessary for homeostasis
Exercising increases body temperature
Sweating decreases body temperature