Global Staffing (PREDICTORS OF CROSS CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT & PERFORMANCE…
PREDICTORS OF CROSS CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT & PERFORMANCE
- Cross-cultural adjustment as a criterion of expats' success on foreign assignment
- Tung, 1981: an expat's inability to adjust to the host country was one of the most frequently cited reasons for failed assignments.
- Some argue that cross-cultural adjustment is a predictor of an expat's premature termination
- Job & nonwork satisfaction, lack of clear goals, organization withdrawing from the market & transferring the employee to another location
2. Language skills
- basic language skills should, at very least, be considered as a potential predictor of success
- Important to consider the nature of assignment
- Positively related with assignee success (Mol et al, 2005)
1. Personality characteristics
- openness & receptiveness to learning the norms of new cultures
- initiation of contacts with host nationals
- gathering cultural information
- handling the higher amounts of stress associated with the ambiguity of the new environments
:!: The Big FIVE as a useful typology: each one relates to international assignee success in a unique way.
- Personality & work motivation are important predictors of job performance.
- strong relationship between BIG 5 & leader effectiveness
Mount & Barrick, 1995: personality variables linked to work motivation drawing interesting distinctions between cognitive (can do) vs personality (will do)
Categories of global assignments (Hays, 1974)
- structure reproducer
- operational element
- chief executive office
Assignments grouped on the basis of
their primary purpose (Edstrom and Galbraith,1977)
- fill positions:
- develop managers
- develop organisations
3. International Experience
- can facilitate an employee's ability to function & work effectively
- From a social learning perspective, the more contact international assignees have with host nationals and the host culture, the
greater their cross-cultural adjustment
- Social cognitive theory prior foreign experience with the host culture is positively related to adjustment
- experience does not serve to reinforce previously held stereotypical beliefs or foster negatively, unrealistic expectations of the foreign culture.
1. NON-WORK PREDICTORS of international assignee's' success
- Family-level characteristics
:!: evaluate the readiness: mentoring, relocation assistance, job placement, language training
- Family diversity
- Early international travel: learning or information processing advantages
- related to all four facets of CQ
2. STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF ASSIGNMENTS
- Degree of centrality in the global business strategy- IS SELECTION A STRATEGIC PRIORITY?
- Differential use of expats has an impact on performance
- Depends on the FIT between the mix of PCNs & TCNs & the subsidiary's internal environment.
3.ROLE OF SELECTION in developing international work skills of employees
- People benefit differently & sometimes not all from the same training or experience
- Personality traits related to learning outcomes
- International assignment selection, it is possible to identify those individuals with the requisite individual characteristics to benefit
from developmental assignments
4. LACK OF UTILISATION
- The use of formal or structured international assignment selection is low
- HR is not often asked to participate in the assignment of an expat & only becomes administrative
1. Candidate Assessment Methods
- Pool of people capable of executing the tasks & duties of the job from a technical perspective.
- traditional predictors of the specific tasks
- personality characteristics
- language tests
- intercultural assessment centre
- Ways to engage employees early even before an assignment is available.
- ways to effectively involve the family as early as possible in the selection process.
- actively self-assess their fit with personality & the requirements of the global assignments
- personality & individual characteristics
- career issues
- family issues
3. Realistic Previews
- Preconceived & accurate expectations prior to an international influence the international assignment
- Realistic decisions
- Pair repatriates with assignees
- Self-directed RJPs are also highly effective
IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE STAFFING STRATEGIES FOR:
- Successful implementation of int. business strategy
- Decision points for different approaches to international staffing
- The problem of shortages of international markets especially in emerging markets
- The requisite support necessary in order to ensure a satisfactory outcome from the org, & indi. perspective
- Management & implementation of knowledge flows which may accrue.
- Focus on predicting to a job context (working internationally) rather than job context(tasks, responsibilities)
- The way in which selection is performed may vary from the traditional methods found in a domestic context by including a broader range of selection variables.
- Finding, developing & deploying culturally astute talent has become a particular challenge for firms globally.
- Cultural barriers such as cultural issues/conflicts, conflicting regulatory requirements, unexpected costs, stakeholder position, & inadequate management
1. Supply-side issues of availability
- Shortages of international managers: constraint in the implementation of global strategies
- dual carreer couples
- participation of women
- retention of expats
3. Demand side issues
4. Expatriate performance & expatriate failure
5. Expatriate Performance
6. Career Issues
- Departure from traditional selection situations & move to a more sequential process; similar to person-environment fit
- international assignee selection can
be seen as a multi-stage process with perhaps the most critical stage being the one that relies most heavily on looking beyond how
well someone can do technically to how well the person will fit with the culture
- Personality variables have substantial empirical support & should be included in the selection process; who is well adjusting to cross-cultural job context
The critical issues faced b MNCs with regard to the employment of home, host & third-country nationals to fill key positions in the HQ & subsidiary operations. Scullion & Collings, 2006
Motives for using expatriates
- Position fillers: when suitably qualified HNCs were not available-mainly transfer of technical knowledge & in developing countries
- Means of management development aimed at developing the competence of the individual manager
- Means of organisational development aimed at increasing knowledge within the MNC
- knowledge transfer
Control Roles (Harzing, 2011)
- Bears: as a means of replacing the centralisation of decision making in MNC & provide a directness of surveillance over subsidiary operations
- Bumble bees: to control subsidiaries through socialisation of host employees & the development of informal communication networks.
- Spiders: control through the weaving of informal communication networks within the MNC.