Asian Philosophy ( (Heterodox Alternatives- Three philosophical systems…
The Upanishads and Religions Discussed
Heterodox Alternatives- Three philosophical systems in India. 600 BCE to 400 CE.
Jainism. The soul is on its own. Souls are innumerable. Matter is made of atoms. The aim of this religion is liberation of the soul.
Charvaka is Indian materialism. The point of departure for Charvaka is epistemology. Matter consists of four elements of earth, water, fire, and air. Mind is material. One of the mainstreams of Indian thought.
Buddhism is the most important system of Indian philosophy. Four Noble Truth are their core values. 520 million followers.Main idea is liberation from the cycle to attain nirvana.
Many paths in Buddhism. Meditation is very important. Three jewels: buddha, dharma, and the sangha.
Dhammapada is the most famous of all Buddhist texts. The core teachings of the buddha is 26 chapters and 423 stanzas. Examples of the chapters include topics on age, the word, the Self, the wise, joy, pleasure, the path, anger, and others..
The truth of suffering (dukkha)
The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya)
The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha)
The truth of the path that frees us from suffering (magga)
The Diamond Sutra. Sutra means book. This is the buddhist sutra on The Perfection of Wisdom. It emphasizes and preaches non abidingness and non attachment. Composed of 300 lines. Extremely old as it one of the oldest texts. The topic is on the Buddha and one of his disciples named Subhuti.
Four Vedas in Total
Comprised of hymns to honor deities. The names of these are Samhitas, Brahmanas, Arakas, and Upanishads. They were composed orally and then written down.
Introduction to Brahman and Atman (breath. The idea of the self and the joy we receive from it is discussed. Moksha is also known as mukti. It means liberation from the cycle of rebirth that is implied by the law of karma. It is attained by overcoming attachment and desires.
Orthodox Indian Philosophy. Orthodox is "astika" and unorthodox is "nastika." Stemmed from smririti remembered literature. 6 orthodox schools of thought. All six share the belief in the vedas as the revealed truth. The 6 schools were Nyaya, Visheshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimasa, and Vedanta.
The Bhagavad Gita. Composed of 18 chapters. Main characters are Arjuna &Krishna. This is the ancient Indian text we read in Hum. 124, a basis for Hinduism. It means song of the lord in Sanskrit. It is a story about good and evil when on a battlefield between Krishna and the strong hero, Arjuna.
Patanjali. Was thought to live in either the 2nd or 3rd centuries. Also wrote on Ayraveda. One of the authors of the Yoga Sutras.
Shankara. 8th century Indian Philosopher. Sanskrit texts discuss Brahman and Atman. Traveled all over India to help restore the study of The Vedas.
Indian Philosophy. First topic of the semester. Started in Chapter 1.
Who was Ghandi? He was known for his preaching and practicing of non-violence which was the way to make peace. Was an Indian immigrant who lived in South Africa in the early 1900s. An attorney and civil disobedience leader. Advocated to bring back Indian made cloth to replace the Britan made cloth. Also known for his many fasts. Died in 1948.
Confucius. Thought to be born in 551 BC. Preached self-cultivation. Was a minister and a magistrate. Best known for being a revered teacher.
The Analects. Put together by his followers. He was one of the main Chinese and well known philosophers.
Lao Tzu. Was said to have been on the Zao court. Confucius was thought to be one of his students. “Empty yourself of everything, let your mind become still.” This means that if we are too busy with anxiety in life we will miss out on many rich and important moments in life.
The Book of Tzu Chuang. The first seven chapters are said to be originally authored. The other ones 26 ones are said to probably said to be written by others. It is important to note that Taoism is an important trait of Chinese teaching, as well as life and society.
Chuang Tzu. BORN 370 BC and died 287 BC. Lived during the Waring States Period. Chuang Tzu implies that all of the organs of the body grow together in encountering and adapting to life.
Tao Te Ching. 6 BC century text that was thought to written by Lazoi. Lazoi is often credited as the father of philosophical Taoism. The goal of the Tao Te Ching is to help us return to our natural state, to live in harmony with the Dao.
Schools of Thought
What is Buddhism? 4th largest religion in the world. Buddhists seek to follow the path of Buddha. The seek to reach the state of nirvana. Buddhists try not to harm life and want to live sacredly and peacefully as possible. The goal is to find peace within oneself. Also, Angelina Jolie is a famous Buddhist that you may know.
Modern Western Encounters in China
The Importance Of Living
End of Semester